论文范文:加拿大国际教育战略学术论文翻译实践报告

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-10 11:23
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:教育论文
本 文 是 一 篇 英 译 汉 的 翻 译 实 践 报 告 , 基 于 对 外 国 学 术 论 文 Canada's International Education Strategy: Implications of a New Policy Landscape for Synergy Between Government Policy and Institutional Str
本 文 是 一 篇 英 译 汉 的 翻 译 实 践 报 告 , 基 于 对 外 国 学 术 论 文 Canada's
International Education Strategy: Implications of a New Policy Landscape
for Synergy Between Government Policy and Institutional Strategy 和加拿
大艾伯塔大学的国际战略计划 University of Alberta International Strategic
Plan 的翻译。通过完成对这两篇文章的翻译,一方面能够向本国读者提供加拿大
国际教育政策,从而让有意向留学加拿大的学生对去加拿大留学建立和留下初步
的认识和印象,为对欧美国际教育政策感兴趣的读者提供参考,还能为想进一步
了解相关留学事务的同学们提供借鉴参考材料;另一方面,本研究在翻译实践中
总结出的几种翻译策略可以运用到其他的外语期刊论文的翻译工作中去。也希望
对今后其他的译者提供一点借鉴参考。笔者在交际翻译理论的指导下,对源语文
本进行英译,力求呈现出一篇逻辑紧密,措辞严谨的译文,结合案例对翻译过程
进行分析总结,最终形成翻译实践报告。实践报告分为四个部分第一部分对源语
文本的背景知识介绍,文本特点介绍和研究现状;第二部分描述整个翻译过程,
分为译前、译中、译后三个环节,包括相关理论准备和实践计划以及译后审校等
内容;第三部分,也就是整篇实践报告的核心章节案例分析,译者从词汇对等、
句法对等、语篇对等三个方面。结合案例分析翻译的重点、难点问题以及不同策
略的灵话运用;第四部分,译者回顾整个翻译过程。对本次的翻译任务进行总结
与反思,包括几处重难点的总结以及不足之处的反思,为今后的翻译工作学习指
明方向。
关键词 国际教育;学术论文翻译;翻译策略;交际翻译理论
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哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文
Abstract
 This thesis is a practice report on the translation of a academic paper on Canada’s
International Education Strategy: Implications of a New Policy Landscape for Synergy
Between Government Policy and Institutional Strategy and the International Strategic
Plan of Alberta University in Canada. It is hoped that, on one hand, the translations of
these two papers, can provide our Chinese readers with a basis view of Canada
International Education Strategies, thus leaving students who might have the intention
to study abroad with a first impression of Canada International Education, and
furnishing reference to readers who have interests in this field and students intending to
further understand the relevant issues about studying abroad, and on another, several
translation strategies summarized in this practice report could be employed in the
translation of thesis published on other foreign periodicals. The translator also hopes
that this report can provide other translators who do translations in other fields or
domains with some useful reference. Under the guidance of Communicative Translation
Theory, the author of this thesis (translation report) translated the original texts,
attempting to render a translation with rigorous logics and precise wordings. Through
analysis of the translation process by combining instances, finally I formulated this
translation report. This report contains four sections: section 1, Introduction to the
background knowledge of the original texts, their features and current research status;
section 2, description of the whole translation process, which consists of three phases:
pre-translation, translation and post-translation, including such contents as preparation
of the relevant theories, practice schedule and post-translation proofreading; section 3 is
a case study part——the core chapter of the whole report, in which the translator, from
the aspects of lexical equivalence, syntactic equivalence and textual equivalence,
discusses the flexible implementation of various translation strategies by combining the
the analysis of the key and difficult problems encountered in my translation; and section
4, review and summary. In this section the translator reviews the whole course of the
translation practice, summarizing and reflecting the translation task, which includes the
summary of several difficulties encountered and reflection of shortages found in the
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Abstract
practice. It is the translator’s hope hoping that all these experiences accumulated in the
course of translation would point out a direction in which her future work and study can
be pursued.
Key Words: international education; academic papers translation; translation strategies;
communicative translation theory
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Chapter1 Introduction of Translation Tasks
Chapter1 Introduction of Translation Tasks
1.1 Background
Certain achievements in the studies of international higher education policies have
been made in China, but there is still some gap existing between China and developed
countries in this domain. Although the number of translation of academic papers in
academic circles in China has increased, the majority of the translations are about such
fields as science and technology, medicine, society, and sports, etc. There still are fewer
translations rendered in connection with the research of international higher education
policies.
The article I translated has been selected from a journal----Higher Education Policy,
an international, peer-reviewed journal focused on issues of significance in higher
education policy. The journal publishes original analyses, covering theoretical,
empirical or practice-based contents. Its articles range from case studies of development
in individual institutions to broad examinations of policy-making at system, national
and regional levels.
Higher Education Policy assembles special issues surrounding a single subject.
Recent specials have addressed the consequences of global competition for local
scholarship, student engagement, higher education research in East Asia, and early
career researchers. The journal reaches an international audience which includes
researchers specializing in higher education, and policy-makers, administrators,
managers and practitioners working in the field of higher education.
The authors of the articles that I translated are Dr. Roopa Trilokekar, Dr. Amira El
Masri and Dr. Roopa Trilokekar, the associate professor of Faculty of Education in York
University. They also co-published a book named "International Education as Public
Policy in Canada" with Dr. Merli Tamtik and Dr. Glen Jones in 2020.
In translating this thesis, I compared the differences between English and Chinese
languages in pertinent of vocabularies, sentences, etc, in hope of understanding the
patterns of conversions between the two languages. My translation practice was
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哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文
conducted on the basis of academic papers in international education policies, taking the
specific problems in the research examples as the research object, and some
corresponding translation strategies and methods were summarized. From the
perspective of translation practice, I take some typical sentences and expressions
encountered in the translation as the objective of my study and have solved the
problems by resorting to various applicable translation theories.
1.2 Text Features Description
An academic paper is a scientific record of a new scientific research achievement
or innovation brief and knowledge of an academic subject in experimental, theoretical
or predictive terms, or a scientific summary of the application of a known principle
applied in practice, which may serve as written documents for reading, communication,
discussion at academic conferences or for publication in academic journals, or for other
purposes.
 Based on the purpose of writing, academic papers can be divided into two
categories: Communication papers and assessment papers. Normally, the main body of a
thesis comprises discussions, explanations and analysis, in the contrast, personal
emotional factors in the paper is scarcely revealed. The language used in papers is
featured by plainness; rhetoric is less commonly used in papers and the wording and
expressions are formal, whilst long sentences, clauses and passive structures are often
seen in this type of articles.
 Since the text of the translation of academic papers involves a specific domain, it
shows a theoretical and systematic feature. Logical relations between sentences
paragraphs of such texts are stricter than those of the general texts. With speculative
analysis being the key features, few emotion and personal perspective is revealed in
such articles. Therefore, big fluctuations among sentences infrequently occur whether in
the original texts or the translated ones, the logic connection hidden between the
sentences is very tight. On the other hand, the readers of academic paper translations are
those who already are in procession of certain knowledge and theories in the specific
field. Thus, translation of academic articles is no longer simply an interlingual
translation, it is a translation characterized by intralingual translation and interlingual
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Chapter1 Introduction of Translation Tasks
translation with relatively small cultural discount. This means that translations of
academic articles should have fewer sentences with ambiguity or the translator has
smaller or lower freedom with handling target language than that with handling
non-academic translations.
The lexical features of academic papers :a) academic papers are articles in a formal
style; therefore the words of the original text tend to be formal. For example, in
academic papers, comprehend is used rather than understand; maintain rather than keep,
and establish or construct rather than build. b) Many polysemous words exist in this
paper. In fact, they don’t fall in the category of rarely-used words in English, but the
"unusual" meanings of these "common words" are used in the academic paper. For
example, the word "represent" used repeatedly in this paper does not literally mean " to
speak, act, or present officially another person or people", but rather, it means "to say or
write what someone or something is like" ,which shares the same meaning with the
word "describe". According to statistics derived from the mobile client of "Common
Distribution Map of Interpretation" of Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English,
the usage frequency percentage of former meaning is 79%, while the latter only 4%.
Another example is "exchange". This word means in the translated article "short time
conversation". The usage frequency of this meaning is so low as not to be taken into the
statistics.
Secondly, regarding the characteristics of sentences, since the academic papers aim
to analyze ideas, develop arguments, argue facts, and present debates, contents of this
kind of articles are often relatively sophisticated, their authors always endeavoring to
elaborate his/her own views in an exact, clear and careful way and at the same time,
avoiding omissions. Although these two papers have only more than 10,000 English
words in size, the contents involved are complex and non-professional people might
find it not easy to understand certain concepts defined in the papers. In order to express
these contents, the two authors of these papers must ensure that the texts are logical and
rigorous, which is reflected in the aspect of syntax the following features :1) long
sentences are used more frequently in these papers than in other types of articles 2)
sentence structure is complex and sentence patterns have more complicated changes.
 The scientificity of academic paper requires the author to be neutral and objective
and to make fewer personal judgments or have bias against the contents of his article.
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哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文
The author must not make subjective speculation and must come to his conclusion by
studying the objective reality; as grounds and arguments, the author should obtain as
much amount of information as possible, using most sufficient and conclusive facts as
the basis for the argument of his article. As for the argumentation, the authors must go
through careful thinking and rigorous deduction. Creativity is of vital significance to the
scientific research. The creativity of academic papers lies in the authors' own unique
opinions, and in the facts that the author can propose new arguments and theories.
Plainness means that the author can use easy-to-understand language to express
scientific principles. Plainness refers to the use of easy-to-understand language to
express scientific principles; he should make his wordings not only grammatical and
lexically correct, but also accurate, bright and vivid. Professionalism is the key bench
mark for distinguishing different types of papers, and it is also the main basis for
classification of thesis. Practicality is the concrete embodiment of the value of the paper,
which is reflected in the content, and aims to cultivate competence according to certain
occupational duties and job tasks. Therefore, when translating academic papers, we
should take a full consideration of such features s as language characteristics,
scientificity and professionalism of word- choosing and sentence-making, and make the
translation comply with the foresaid features with great diligence and attention.
The first principle of academic translation, in my opinion, should be the
"contextual one ". In fact, if a translation satisfies this standard, then the translation
procedure has been completed. But obviously, this is a loose, relative principle, as the
context is always changing. The so-called “context” here can be divided into two items:
first, the context of the original. It is required that translator should convey the original
meanings according to the "reason" and "logic" of the original context, and by realizing
this, his translation is close to the requirement of the "faithfulness". The second refers to
the context of the mother tongue, that is, the translator should fully consider, pay
attention to, and take care of the historical backgrounds of the mother tongue, and he
should not arrogate or cross the line of translation, in particular, in the selection and
transformation of names and expressions, he is expected to maintain a certain degree of
tension. Another aspect is the problem of handling mother tongue context. As we conduct activities, think or live under our native language context, our translation
activities naturally show respect to mother tongue and its context. Some translators are
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Chapter1 Introduction of Translation Tasks
not good at foreign languages, but they are experts in their mother tongue. They could
do well in translation. There are also examples showing that some translators master
foreign languages perfectly well and make unreadable translations because they fail to
have a mastery of their mother tongues. Our experience has been built up with our
mother tongue, or based on mother tongue.
According to my division, generally two types of methods can be adopted in
translation: one is "hard translation ", another "soft translation ". In practice, we are
often confronted with either "hard" or "soft" things. In terms of hard and soft translation,
I in principle prefer Mr. Lu Xun's hard translation.
Of course Mr. Lu Xun has sufficient grounds: translation itself has significance in
reconstructing one's own language and culture. If the translation is no different from the
current daily-used language, “soft” and flabby, it will lose half the meaning of
translation. But here, I also want to add: adoption of "hard" or "soft" translation should
depend on the specific situation, mainly on the original works.
If the original work is literature, or a popular reading, which is popular to the
public, or was originally intended to entertain the masses of people, I think "soft"
translation is the best polity (although literary works, especially poetry, are also
academic and fundamentally different from popular readings), otherwise the translation
can hardly reach its goal of "enlightening" or "entertaining" the target audience.
However, as for philosophical or ideological works, I stick to "hard" translation
method (in this connection, I still share the same viewpoint with Mr. Lu Xun). The
translation of philosophical thoughts should be "deliberately hard", so that the common
people cannot understand as the original is not accessible to the common people.
Though Huang Canran argues that translation is a process by which the potentials
of the translators and the original texts are released, the author is of opinion that a
blindly releasing of such potentials may be harmful to academic papers, because
complex language structure, even "obscureness" may actually be a conscious selection
discourse expression by the original author.
As we all know, different language structures may support different deep logics. In
such case, if translator superfacializes the implicit logic of the original works, and expresses obscure contents in plain language, his treatment would go against the
academic exchange intention, thus changing the perspective of the original statement of
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哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文
knowledge. This is an abuse of the translator's power. Stefan Baumgarten pointed out
that when we appreciate the fluency of a translator, we may not realize that this is not
the original style at all, nor the popular style under the original culture context. It can be
said that the translator is also a discourse analyst who needs to distinguish between the
knowledge constructed by the discourse structure and the objective one; but the
difference lies in that he has no right to transform the way and angle of the original
statement. Instead, he should faithfully reproduce the two kinds of knowledge contained
in the original.
By "principle of uniformity" I mean the" principle of consistency and uniformity of
translation ". This principle is an inevitable requirement of the aforementioned
contextual principle. What I mean is: for the same word or concept, we should by by all
means achieve consistency and uniformity in the translation, whether in works of
individual thinkers or in collectively-presented contexts of different thinkers. There is
no objection to this, but it is easier to say than to achieve it in translation.
In the previous paragraph I emphasized “hard” translation, and then I discussed”
uniformity”, but there are requirements on “soft" translation. This is to say no matter
how you handle your translation; you should ensure that your translation is readable.
The meaning of "readable" I refer to here might be closer to Mr. Yan Fu's "Faithfulness,
expressiveness and elegance ", it seems that it hasn’t reached the level of such height. I
just want to say that no matter how difficult it might be, no matter how big the gap
between the translated languages and those of the original, the translation we present
must be readable to the native speakers. And in the case of academic translation, at least
the translation should be understandable to its audience——the professionals.
Otherwise, our translation will lose its meaning. This means that we must maintain a
certain tension between a "hard" quality of academic works and a smoothness of the
translation; we must not let the latter affect the former nor to give up the latter because
of the former.
1.3 Current Research Status on Translation of Academic Papers
This paper introduces the current status of research in academic paper translation.
It first introduces the current research situation of academic thesis translation at home
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Chapter1 Introduction of Translation Tasks
and abroad, and then explains the significance of translating academic papers of foreign
higher education policies.
With the advancement of globalization, academic exchanges between China and
foreign countries are becoming increasingly extensive and profound, as a carrier of the
latest research results in various disciplines, translation of academic papers can prompt
domestic scholars to follow or even surpass foreign research, its importance being by no
means absolutely evident.
In recent years, academic papers have received extensive attention because of their
scientificity, originality and practicalism. The translation of academic papers can help
the relevant researches to be carried out more extensively. However, at present, most of
the translation of foreign academic papers focuses on abstracts, titles, or academic
works, etc. There are fewer translations rendering the main body of an entire academic
paper. At the same time, it is very necessary to translate excellent foreign papers,
especially those in the fields where our domestic researches are conducted inadequately.
Through searching on the net, at present, there are no authoritative monograph
studies on skills of translating academic papers, and the number of related documents is
very limited. According to the statistics of the CNKI, there are 117 articles of literature
relating to translation of academic papers, including 69 degree papers of master and
doctor and 48 journal articles. Specifically speaking, translations of academic papers
fall in the fields of science and technology, education, medicine, society, sports, etc.
Among them, there are a large number of papers studying the translation of abstracts of
academic papers, and about 60 papers are merely about the translation of abstracts of
academic papers, and there are also some studies on the translation of titles and
acknowledgement of academic papers.
Foreign linguists often focus their attention on the analysis of translation theory.
Their translations of Chinese texts are mainly about culture, literature (poetry), legal
terms and a small number of language teachings and researches. Discussions on the
translation of academic papers are rarely seen.
Therefore, a mature and complete theoretical system for the translation of
academic papers has not been formed. There are few studies on the translation of academic papers, and still fewer studies on the translation of academic papers
discussing foreign higher education policies. It is found through China Hownet
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哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文
(www.cnki.net) that there is almost no relevant literature relating to the translation of
foreign academic papers. Only one article titled "Living translation in US Chinese
medicine"(published on the Cambridge University Press Journal) was found to have
briefly mentioned the translation of medical academic papers.
At present, there are few studies regarding the translation of foreign academic
papers, and generally these studies focus the stylistic characteristics of academic papers.
Through the study and understanding of the the writing and characteristics of this
subject practiced abroad, and the comparison of the related parallel texts, I compare the
Chinese academic papers with the English ones. On the basis an understanding of
characteristics of the text, I carried out the translation of the foresaid academic papers
that discuss foreign higher education policies, aiming to deliver a translation that can be
accepted by the target readers. At the same time, the translation of academic papers on
foreign higher education policy contributes the exchange and cooperation of researchers
at home and abroad.
As the saying goes: “Stand on eminence and become farsighted”. In the work of
academic research, to do an original research, you must stand on eminence so as to
avoid repeating what others have already done. The so-called standing on the eminence
refers to a good mastery of the main research results of a problem under the background
of broad academic vision. And that background means academic history. Only furnished
with such knowledge, can one find his own research entry and make his own
discoveries and contributions.
China's academic research has been build upon on the borrowing from and studies
of western humanities and social sciences and other professional fields. Therefore,
translation is of vital importance to academic research. Academic translation is a
process of in-depth studying and re-presenting the academic fruits digested. The author's
thoughts in the literature may have been interpreted in other works, or have sprouted
from the author's experiences. A systematic study of the author can bring about
resonance with the translator, who expresses the author’s thoughts as if he or she were
expressing his own ideas.
The author carefully weighs and thinks over the way and sentence in which he thinks he can best express his thoughts, because even if the conversion within the same
language might reduce the expression effect of the original contents, and a poor
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Chapter1 Introduction of Translation Tasks
expression in other language may cause "damage" to the original works. In order to
avoid the occurrence of above mentioned issues, the translator should deeply study the
thoughts of the original text and the author’s thought system, and rewrite the original
text in a way that accords with the thinking and habit of the target language, so as to
reproduce the original text in the new language environment.
Academic paper translation itself is virtually an academic conversation between
translators and foreign scholars, and Chinese translations can facilitate readers’
understanding of academic progress and history of foreign countries, and thus creates
conditions for readers to carry out equal and substantive dialogue with foreign scholars.
Academic citation is also a form of academic conversation, an effective way to avoid
talking to ourselves, and one of the basic requirements of academic norms. Seen from
the angle of form of our recent academic papers, the number of citations has indeed
increased greatly, but if you read the papers more carefully, you will find that there still
are quite few substantive citations. This situation restrains us from constructing and
forming our academic traditions and pedigrees, and consequently, other people would
find difficult to know academic traditions and pedigrees, which would do no good in
introducing us to the world. Now, the condition is "Good wine still needs bush".
Academic translation is the main tool with which international academic exchanges
are conducted. With the increase in the demand for academic papers and academic
works in the world, the significance of academic translation has been enhanced, and in
the mean while, such translation work is also confronted great opportunities and
challenges. However, the theoretical research of academic translation has always been
marginalized; the vacancy of academic translation in the realm of translation research,
together with unsatisfactory academic translation works, all of these to a great extent
restrict the development of academic translation and the dissemination of academic
achievements. Therefore, strengthening the theoretical research of academic translation,
clarifying its characteristics, grasping the law of academic translation and exploring the
skills of academic translation are the tasks that need be addressed in the current
academic translation activities.
As of now, though some scholars have already done researches into the academic papers, in particular, the C-E translation of abstracts, fewer researches have been done
in the branch of E-C translation of academic papers.
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哈尔滨师范大学硕士学位论文
English is a universal language in which most academic exchanges in the world are
conducted, in the mean while, many English academic papers are of high research value;
E-C translation of academic papers has become one of the major ways to carry out
academic and cultural exchanges with countries all over the world, through which many
advanced concepts abroad can be introduced in China. The translation of this academic
paper is of great significance to an appropriate handling of translation problems relating
to vocabularies and sentences.
Working in the Foreign Language Current Publication Readers Service Division of
the library,I often hear readers complaining: The time is too limited for them to read the
majority of the foreign languages materials relating to his or her professional domain.
Constrained by time and language barrier, readers can’t sufficiently and effectively
digest foreign periodicals, which exerts a certain influence on teaching, scientific
research and medical treatment. On one hand, it signifies that the amount of whole
human society's knowledge and information has hit a new high and people's desire for
knowledge and information has become the urgent requirements of the current society;
on the other hand, it also puts forward to the library that the natural functions of merely
purchasing, processing, sorting, lending and storing of foreign language periodicals in
the past can no longer fully meet the requirements of the information age. How to
change passive into active service, activate an enormous amount of information and
knowledge so as to meet the needs of readers to the maximum extent, has become the
responsibility and obligation that we should bear.
Improving the utilization rate of foreign academic periodicals and enhancing its
"utilization efficiency", is of great significance whether from the perspective of reader's
work or from the viewpoint of economic benefit. Some students said that through the
translation page of the school journal, they learn lots of knowledge about the foreign
practices that cannot be learnt from books. I have to admit that in translating this
academic paper, I also learnt a lot of relevant professional knowledge for I have looked
up numerous literatures relating to the papers translated. This translation practice has
enriched me and expanded my vision of knowledge, which improved my knowledge
level greatly.
 The translation of academic papers plays a significant role in international
academic exchanges and cooperation, promoting domestic academic development and
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Chapter1 Introduction of Translation Tasks
creating new academic growth points. The translation of this Canadian higher
international education policy paper can facilitate the international sharing of the
academic research results in the field of higher international education in a short period
of time, which is conducive to academic exchange and long-term development in this
field.
The translations of academic papers can enrich the relevant knowledge in this field
at home, help to broaden the international vision as to the papers in related fields, and
promote the standardization and internationalization of the academic papers in higher
international education in China. They can also be conductive to the import of advanced
academic thoughts, which would provide our relevant fields with new research topics.
Besides, they can broaden the vision of the people doing researches into this field and
be beneficial to the study of the thinking methods of foreign researchers.
It is hoped that through this translation practice, academic papers translation work
can receive more attention. At the same time, this translation practice can not only train
and improve my translation skills, enhance my translation efficiency and quality, but
also provide reference to other colleagues engaged in such translation research.
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