论文范文:高考英语试卷的跨文化能力体现研究 ——以 2015-2019 年全国高考英

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 09:21
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
随着全球化的快速发展,越来越多的岗位对人才的跨文化能力提出了明确的要 求。我国的改革开放也在不断深入,中外交流变得越来越密切,跨文化能力成为新 型人才的一个衡量标准
随着全球化的快速发展,越来越多的岗位对人才的跨文化能力提出了明确的要
求。我国的改革开放也在不断深入,中外交流变得越来越密切,跨文化能力成为新
型人才的一个衡量标准。教育寄托了一个国家的希望,我国教育部颁布的 2003 年
版《普通高中英语课程标准》和 2017 年版《普通高中英语课程标准》都明确要求
高中生要具备跨文化能力并且对跨文化能力进行了详细的阐述。关于跨文化能力这
方面的绝大多数研究,都集中在对学生和老师进行调查问卷和访谈,调查的结果已
经非常明确,即英语教师和学生的跨文化能力总体现状令人担忧, 主要表现为他们
在跨文化知识、技能、意识和态度这 4 个维度上发展不平衡(涂薇,2019)。这就
导致很多中国学生考试能考高分,但无法用英语与外国人正常交流。面对如此现状,
笔者试图从语言测试的角度找原因。跨文化能力是语言教学的组成部分,所以对语
言教学的测试必须要包含对跨文化能力的测试。高考作为我国重要的语言测试之一,
其产生的反拨作用对教学能产生极大的影响(侯云星, 2019)。在很大程度上,高考考
试内容决定了教师教什么、学生学什么以及教师和学生对待跨文化能力培养的态度。
因此研究高考英语试卷是否体现跨文化能力以及如何体现显得尤为重要。
本研究主要采用了文献研究法、文本分析法和统计分析法,基于“跨文化能力
测试”理论和“英语测试与文化”等理论,主要探讨了 2015-2019 年全国高考英语
卷的跨文化能力体现现状并提出相关建议。具体研究以下问题:
1. 2003 年版《普通高中英语课程标准》和 2017 年版《普通高中英语课程标准》
对跨文化能力的要求如何,以及两者要求有何差异性?
2. 高考英语全国卷的跨文化能力体现总体状况如何?
3. 高考英语全国卷的跨文化能力体现的内容类型如何分布?
4. 高考英语全国卷的跨文化能力体现的具体内容是什么?
调查结果显示:
1. 通过对比两版英语课程标准,笔者发现相较于 2003 年版《普通高中英语课
程标准》, 2017 年版《普通高中英语课程标准》在课程目标、学科核心素养、“人
与社会”语境、以及“语言知识”要素和“文化知识”要素等地方多次提到跨文化
能力的培养,并对文化教学的要求更为细致。
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2. 2015-2019 年的全国高考英语卷中,体现跨文化能力的文本共有50 篇,占总
文本数的18.80%,说明全国高考英语卷中涉及跨文化能力的文本数量偏低。
3. 三种类型的文本材料(听力型文本材料、英语阅读型文本材料、中文阅读型
文本材料)均反映了跨文化能力,跨文化能力在这三种类型的文本材料中体现的比
例差别较大。跨文化能力在听力文本材料中体现比例最低,只占总听力文本的2.14%;
汉语类阅读文本材料体现跨文化能力的文本材料比例最高,占汉语类阅读文本材料
总数的92.86%;英语类阅读文本材料体现跨文化能力的文本比例适中,占英语类阅
读文本材料总数的30.36%。
4. 英语阅读型文本材料包含阅读理解、完形填空、语法以及短文改错四类题型。
在这四类题型中,语法题文本材料体现跨文化能力的比例最高,其比例为50%。其
次是阅读理解,有41.67%的阅读理解文本材料体现了跨文化能力。完形填空文本材
料体现跨文化能力的比例为14.29%。短文改错文本材料均未体现跨文化能力。
5. 2015-2019 年的14 套高考英语全国卷试题对学生跨文化能力考察不均衡,其
主要考察学生的跨文化能力中的文化技能和文化知识,对文化情感没有考察。跨文
化能力体现中的文化知识体现表现为:文化知识内容占比小,文化知识的类型单一,
其中涵盖文化知识类型最多的是2019 年Ⅱ卷和2019 年III 卷,涵盖了了4 种文化
内容类型。所调查的 14 套试卷涉及了 7 类文化知识,其中 3 类文化知识的出现频
率最高,分别是:建筑与交通、文学与艺术、生活方式。关于文化技能的考察,全
部集中在中文阅读文本中,即通过英语写作来考察学生的文化技能。
结合以上的研究发现,笔者对如何改进高考英语全国卷的跨文化能力体现以及
跨文化能力教学提出了相应的建议,旨在提高学生和教师的跨文化能力。
关键词:跨文化能力;全国高考英语卷;高中英语课程标准;测试
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Abstract
With the rapid development of globalization, more and more employers put forward
clear requirements for the intercultural competence of talents. With the intensification of
reform and opening up in China, the communication between China and foreign
countries has become more and more essential, and intercultural competence has become
a measure of new talents. Education is the hope of a country. The 2003 edition of English
Curriculum Standard for senior high school and 2017 edition of English Curriculum
Standard for senior high school issued by the Chinese Ministry of Education clearly
require senior high school students to have intercultural competence. Most of the
researches on intercultural competence are focused on the questionnaire and interview
with students and teachers. These results of the researches are very clear. That is to say,
the overall situation of intercultural competence of English teachers and students is
alarming, which is reflected in their unbalanced development in the four dimensions:
intercultural knowledge, skills, awareness and attitude(Tu Wei,2019). As a result, many
Chinese students can get high scores in exams, but little of them can communicate with
foreigners in English fluently. In the face of such a situation, the author tries to find out
the reasons from the perspective of language testing. As an integral part of English
teaching, English testing should also reflect intercultural competence. As an important
language test in China, the washback effects of college entrance examination on teaching
can not be underestimated (Hou Yunxing, 2019). To a large extent, the teacher teaches
what the college entrance examination tests and the student learns what the college
entrance examination tests. Therefore, it is very important to study the condition situation
of intercultural competence representation in the college entrance examination English
papers.
The text-based research of this paper adopts the methods of literature research, text
analysis and statistical analysis, and takes the related theories of "intercultural
competence test" and "English test and culture" as the theoretical basis of the research. It
mainly discusses the present situation of intercultural competence representation in the
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national college entrance examination English papers. The following questions are
specifically studied:
1. What are the specific requirements of the English Curriculum Standard on
intercultural competence, and the differences between the 2003 edition English
Curriculum Standard of senior high school and the 2017 edition English Curriculum
Standard of senior high school on intercultural competence?
2. What is the overall situation of the intercultural competence representation in the
national college entrance examination English papers?
3. What are the distribution and the content types of intercultural competence in the
national college entrance examination English papers?
4. What is the specific content of intercultural competence in the national college
entrance examination English papers?
The results show that:
1. By comparing the two versions of English Curriculum Standard , the author finds
that compared with the 2003 edition English Curriculum Standard for senior high school,
the 2017 edition English Curriculum Standard for senior high school improves the
cultivation of intercultural competence in the aspects of curriculum objectives, core
quality of subjects, context of "people and society", as well as elements of "language
knowledge" and "cultural knowledge", and requires more detailed cultural teaching.
2. In the national college entrance examination English papers from the year 2015 to
2019, there are 50 texts representing intercultural competence, accounting for 18.80% of
the total texts. It shows that the number of intercultural competence related texts in the
national college entrance examination is small.
3. The three types of text materials (Listening Type、English Reading Type、
Chinese Reading Type)all reflect intercultural competence, but the proportion of
intercultural competence texts in different types of texts materials is quite different.
Among them, the proportion of intercultural competence in listening texts is low,
accounting for only 2.14% of the total listening texts. The proportion of intercultural
competence in Chinese reading texts is the highest, accounting for 92.86% of the total
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Chinese reading texts. The proportion of intercultural competence in English reading
texts is moderate, accounting for 30.36% of the total English reading texts.
4. English reading type materials include reading comprehension, cloze, grammar
and essay correction. Among the four types of questions, the proportion of grammar text
materials reflecting intercultural competence is the highest, which is 50%. The second is
reading comprehension. 41.67% of reading comprehension text materials reflects
intercultural competence. The percentage of cloze text materials reflecting intercultural
competence is 14.29%. The intercultural competence is not reflected in the essay
correction text materials.
5. In the 14 sets of national college entrance examination English papers from the
year 2015 to 2019, the testing of students' intercultural competence is not balanced, and
these tests mainly focus on the cultural knowledge and skills in intercultural competence.
The proportion of cultural knowledge content is small, and the type of cultural
knowledge is single, with the most cultural knowledge covered in 2019II and 2019III,
involving four types of cultural contents. The 14 sets of papers involve seven types of
cultural knowledge, among which types of cultural knowledge have the highest
frequency, namely: architecture and traffic, literature and art, lifestyles. The testing of
cultural skills is all concentrated in Chinese reading texts, that is, through English writing
to test students’ cultural skills.
Based on the above findings, the author puts forward some suggestions on how to
improve the intercultural competence representation in the national college entrance
examination English papers and intercultural competence teaching, aiming to improve
the intercultural competence of students and teachers.
Key words: intercultural competence;national college entrance examination English
papers;senior high school English Curriculum Standard ; test
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Contents
摘 要................................................................................................................................... I
Abstract ........................................................................................................................... III
List of Tables...................................................................................................................... IX
Chapter 1 Introduction.......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Research Background..................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Research Significance .................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Research Methods .......................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Thesis Framework .......................................................................................................... 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review ................................................................................................ 9
2.1 Concept Definition .................................................................................................. 9
2.1.1 Culture........................................................................................................... 9
2.1.2 Intercultural Competence ............................................................................ 10
2.1.3 Test .............................................................................................................. 12
2.2 Research Status Quo of Intercultural Competence Test........................................ 15
2.2.1 Current Research Status Quo Abroad.......................................................... 15
2.2.2 Domestic Research Status Quo ................................................................... 17
2.2.3 Review of Existing Studies ......................................................................... 20
2.3 English Test and Culture Representation .............................................................. 20
2.3.1 Test Itself and Culture ................................................................................. 21
2.3.2 Test Questions and Culture ......................................................................... 21
2.3.3 Test Text and Culture.................................................................................. 21
2.4 Intercultural Competence Test Models ................................................................. 22
Chapter 3 Interpretation of Senior High School English Curriculum Standard ................ 26
3.1 A Hierarchical Description of the Requirements of 2003 Edition Senior High
School English Curriculum Standard for Students' Intercultural Competence .......... 26
3.2 Interpretation of the Requirements of 2017 Edition English Curriculum Standard
for Senior High School Students' Intercultural Competence....................................... 28
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3.3 The Comparison Between the Two Editions English Curriculum Standard for
Senior High School Students' Intercultural Competence. ........................................... 30
Chapter 4 Research Design and Implementation ............................................................... 33
4.1 Research Object..................................................................................................... 33
4.2 Research Questions ............................................................................................... 33
4.3 Research Framework............................................................................................. 34
4.4 Research Process ................................................................................................... 35
4.4.1 Data Collection............................................................................................ 35
4.4.2 Data Processing ........................................................................................... 35
Chapter 5 Research Results and Analysis .......................................................................... 38
5.1 General Information of the College Entrance examination English Paper ........... 38
5.2 The Overall Situation of the Intercultural Competence Representation in the
National College Entrance Examination English Papers ............................................ 39
5.3 The Types of Intercultural Competence Contents in the National College
Entrance Examination English Papers......................................................................... 43
5.4 The Analysis of Reading Type(English) Texts in the National College Entrance
Examination English Papers........................................................................................ 47
5.4.1 Intercultural Competence Representation in Reading Comprehension....... 47
5.4.2 Intercultural Competence Representation in Cloze..................................... 52
5.4.3 Intercultural Competence Representation in Grammar............................... 52
5.4.4 Intercultural Competence Representation in Essay Correction................... 54
5.5 The Analysis of Reading Type(Chinese) Texts in the National College Entrance
Examination English Papers........................................................................................ 54
Chapter 6 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 58
6.1 Research Findings ................................................................................................. 58
6.2 Suggestions on the Reflection of Intercultural Competence Representation in the
National College Entrance Examination English Papers ............................................ 59
6.2.1 Suggestions for the Intercultural Competence Test of College Entrance
Examination English Papers................................................................................. 59
V
6.2.2Suggestions for Intercultural Competence Teaching ................................... 62
6.3 Research Insufficiency and Research Prospects.................................................... 64
Bibliography....................................................................................................................... 66
Appendix ............................................................................................................................ 70
AppendixⅠ.................................................................................................................... 70
AppendixⅡ................................................................................................................... 72
Acknowledgement.............................................................................................................. 74
作者简介............................................................................................................................ 76
V
List of Tables
Table 2-1 Intercultural Competence Test Models ........................................21
Table 3-1 Objectives and Requirements of Intercultural Competence ........25
Table 3-2 Specific Contents of Intercultural Competence Requirements for
Senior High School Students..........................................26
Table 3-3 Comparison of the Objectives and Requirements of the Two
Editions of Curriculum Standards............................................................30
Table 4-1 Framework of Analysis of Intercultural Competence
Representation in College Entrance Examination....................................33
Table 4-2 Corresponding Relationship between Question Types and Text
Materials...................................................................................................35
Table 4-3 Overall Situation of Intercultural Competence Representation in
Text Materials.......................................................................................35
Table 4-4 Specific Contents of Intercultural Competence Representation
..................................................................................................................36
Table5-1The Overall Situation of Intercultural Competence Representation
in National College Entrance Examination Papers..........38
Table 5-2 Proportion of Intercultural Competence Related Texts in College
Entrance Examination Papers Over the Years.............................39
Table 5-3 Types and Contents of Intercultural Competence in Text Materials
of College Entrance Examination Paper...................................42
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Table 5-4 Number of Types of Cultural Knowledge in Text Materials of
College Entrance Examination Paper.......................................................43
Table 5-5 Reading comprehension texts related to cultural knowledge...46
Table5-6 Amount of Cultural Knowledge Types in Reading
Comprehension.............................................................................................50
Table 5-7 Cloze Texts Related to Cultural Knowledge............................51
Table 5-8 Grammar Texts Related to Cultural Knowledge......................51
Table 5-9 Cultural Knowledge Representation in English Reading Types
Texts..........................................................................................................53
Table 5-10 Writing Requirements of Reading Type(Chinese) in College
Entrance Examination Papers...................................................................54
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Chapter 1 Introduction
In this chapter, the author mainly introduces the research background, research
significance, research questions and methods of this study. The overall structure of this
thesis is also included in this chapter.
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1.1 Research Background
In the past few decades, due to the progress of science and technology, information
technology is changing with each passing day. Every citizen of "global village" has been
involved in the wave of economic globalization, and the politics, economy and culture of
the whole world have been widely linked. The increase of communication between
different countries and regions has also brought a series of problems caused by cultural
differences. Cultural misunderstanding, contradictions and even conflicts have brought
obstacles to people's communication. Behind these superficial contradictions and conflicts,
the deep obstacles come from the differences of culture and values. The improvement of
intercultural awareness and intercultural competence is particularly important. Foreign
language learning is an important way for students to contact the national culture of other
countries. The learning of a language should also be the learning process of culture (Zhu
Jianqiu, 2015). The cultivation of high school students' intercultural competence is one of
the indispensable abilities in foreign language application. The 2017 edition of English
Curriculum Standard for senior high school proposes to pay special attention to the
cultivation of students' ability to use language comprehensively, to improve students'
ability to think and deliver in English and to form intercultural awareness and basic
intercultural competence (Gu Ming, 2018). This highlights the importance of culture in
English classroom teaching. How to achieve this goal under the existing English teaching
conditions and English learning environment has become the focus of high school English
teachers' research. Teachers should combine teaching materials to teach students language
knowledge, but also to transfer cultural knowledge to students, improve students'
competence to communicate in English.
The theory of intercultural communicative competence tends to be mature(Sun
Yongchun, 2019). The cultivation of intercultural competence has attracted more and more
attention of scholars and front-line teachers. There are many theoretical works on
intercultural communication, such as Jia Yuxin's Intercultural Communication (Jia Yuxin,
1997), Chen Shen's Cultural Teaching in Foreign Language Teaching (Chen Shen, 1999),
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Gu Jiazu's Intercultural Communication Hidden Culture in Foreign Language and
Literature (Gu Jiazu, 2002). For example, Professor Jia Yuxin puts forward the research
mode of intercultural competence from the research direction, method, content and scope,
while Professor Chen Shen discusses how to combine language teaching and cultural
teaching. With the deepening of the research, more and more experts and scholars find that
even if they have good language knowledge and no culture introduction, there will be a
series of problems in the practical application, and the research of intercultural competence
just solves this problem. So scholars and teachers began to pay attention to how to cultivate
students' intercultural competence in teaching. The traditional teaching method, which
used grammar knowledge as the key point of teaching, was replaced by a new model. They
began to try to introduce culture into students' knowledge system, and cultivate students'
intercultural awareness and competence, especially in the cultivation of high school
students' intercultural competence conduct a lot of investigation and empirical research.
At present, most high school English teachers still use the traditional grammar and
translation teaching in English teaching, but ignore the culture teaching. College entrance
examination still seriously affects teachers' teaching ideas. In order to improve students'
examination performance, teachers spend a lot of time teaching vocabulary and grammar
knowledge in the classroom. In this way, although students improve their language
knowledge, their communication competence and intercultural awareness have not been
strengthened. At the same time, most high school students study English just to pass the
exam. They don't have a strong desire to communicate with English speakers, so they have
no interest in English cultural background knowledge. Generally speaking, most students
lack of intercultural awareness and intercultural competence. The current situation of
cultivating intercultural awareness in middle school is far from satisfactory. In this case,
the cultivation of intercultural awareness can not achieve the desired effect. The so-called
intercultural awareness refers to the participants' sensitivity to cultural factors in
intercultural communication. In modern society, intercultural competence has become an
indispensable part of people's life. However, the biggest obstacle in intercultural
competence is cultural difference, and the whole world is considering how to eliminate it.
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As an integral part of teaching, testing should also reflect intercultural
communication. In addition, the test has a backwash effect on teaching. As one of the
largest tests in China, the backwash produced by the college entrance examination can
have a great impact on teaching(Hou Yunxing, 2019). Therefore, it is particularly
important to study whether the text materials of the college entrance examination reflect
intercultural communication in English teaching.Although the study of college entrance
examination English test and culture has gradually attracted the attention of the academic
community, the total number of literature on this topic is small, the analysis of culture is
not in-depth, and there is no clear distinction and explanation of the category and content
of culture(Hou Yunxin,2019).
The research on language testing and text has developed earlier in foreign countries,
but the amount is insufficient. Since 2004, some researchers in China began to study the
text materials of language test, including CET-4 and CET-6, TEM-4 and TEM-8 for
English majors, and English examination papers for postgraduates. The research objects of
the existing literature can be roughly divided into the following four kinds : reading text,
listening text, translation text, and English test materials.
Although the literature has been studied from different aspects, the research mainly
focuses on the difficulty, readability, authenticity and characteristics of the text. However,
there are only three articles (Hou Yunxin, 2019; Xiong Weiwei, 2019; Zhou Xiaoxue,
2019) about whether the text materials reflect the culture or not. Therefore, it is of
far-reaching significance to analyze the text of college entrance examination papers for the
investigation of intercultural competence.
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1.2 Research Significance
With the acceleration of China's opening up, China and the Chinese people will
confront the world with a more open face. If we want to understand the world and go to the
world, we must put forward higher requirements for the national foreign language
education. Foreign language education in senior high school is an important process of
cultivating citizens' foreign language ability. The improvement of high school students'
intercultural competence will have a great and far-reaching influence on the development
of Chinese culture and economy in the 21st century. Therefore, the society has put forward
higher and more diversified requirements for the English education of senior high school
graduates, especially for the ability to use language, including the requirements for
entering school, employment and promotion. The demand of college entrance examination
for English ability is constantly increasing. For example, in recent years, the English test
questions of college entrance examination highlight the investigation of students' English
pragmatic ability, pay attention to the test of real language and language use ability, no
matter in listening, single choice, gestalt, reading or writing, the proportion of intercultural
pragmatic content is gradually increasing. For those high school graduates who are facing
employment, many industries also require them to obtain some relevant certificates to
prove their ability to use English.
The English Curriculum Standard for senior high school has been put forward for
more than ten years. One of the questions we have to think about is whether it has played a
necessary guiding role in English teaching. As we all known, the college entrance
examination is still the baton for students to enter the University. Therefore, we must find
out a balance between the English Curriculum Standard and the college entrance
examination. What’s more, we have to explore a series related questions. What is the
status of students' intercultural competence and why? What’s the intercultural competence
requirements of English Curriculum Standard for senior high school? How to improve
students' intercultural competence? Today, when we vigorously advocate the intercultural
communication ability, whether we treat the attitude of the culture of the English speaking
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countries and the culture of our nation correctly? How should we better promote education
of culture. From this perspective, it is worth investigating and studying to cultivate
students' intercultural competence .
From the perspective of academic significance, this is the first time to explore the
intercultural competence through the analysis of national college entrance examination
English papers.Throughout the literature review, the thematic research of intercultural
competence mostly focuses on investigating the current situation of students' and teachers'
intercultural competence and putting forward corresponding improvement suggestions.
Teachers should not only realize the necessity and importance of improving their
intercultural competence, but also renew their foreign language teaching ideas and
improve their intercultural communicative competence. Of course, the government and
schools should take some corresponding measures and help(Tu Wei, 2019). Increasing the
content of intercultural communication in English textbooks and creating the external
environment of intercultural education are essential to cultivate students’ and teachers’
intercultural competence(Gao Xiaoyan, 2010). There are some text analysis studies, but
most of them analyze the complexity, difficulty, text features, readability and authenticity
of the materials. By comparison, the entry point of this study is very unique. By analyzing
the representation of intercultural competence in the national college entrance
examination English papers, combining with the high school English Curriculum
Standard, this paper discusses how to test intercultural competence, and ultimately aims to
improve the intercultural competence of teachers and students.
From the perspective of practical significance, this study can provide some basis for
the reform of college entrance examination papers and some suggestions for the
intercultural competence test. What’s more, the results of this study can also play a guiding
role in teachers' teaching and students' learning.
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1.3 Research Methods
This paper adopts the methods of literature research, text analysis and statistical
analysis.
Literature research method: It provides theoretical basis and support for researchers.
In the research of literature, the author mainly reads the current literature about
intercultural competence, intercultural competence test and some important theories in
order to have a solid theoretical basis and scientific research results. Through reading the
literature, we can understand the advantages and disadvantages of test text analysis, and
then find the innovation of my paper .
Text analysis method: The author analyzes two versions of high school English
Curriculum Standard, and analyzes national college entrance examination English papers
from the year 2015 to 2019.
Statistical analysis method: Through the analysis of the national college entrance
examination English papers from the year 2015 to 2019, the author gets the data from
from different texts. Then, collected data are mainly classified and processed by word
and excel.
1.4 Thesis Framework
The structure of this paper is as follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction. This chapter mainly analyzes the research background and
significance, research methods, and finally gives the framework of this paper.
Chapter 2: Literature review. This chapter first defines the relevant concepts,
including culture, intercultural competence, test and intercultural competence test. Then it
analyzes the relevant research status quo of intercultural competence test at home and
abroad, and comments on the existing research. Finally it expounds the theoretical basis of
English test and culture and intercultural competence test models.
Chapter 3: The interpretation of senior high school English Curriculum Standard.
First of all, it is the interpretation of high school English Curriculum Standard on students'
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intercultural competence, including the interpretation of specific requirements of high
school English Curriculum Standard on students' intercultural competence and the
classifiable description of high school English Curriculum Standard on students'
intercultural competence. Then this paper makes a comparative analysis of the 2003
edition senior high school English Curriculum Standard and the 2017edition senior high
school English new curriculum standard, including the appearance and improvement of
the 2017 senior high school English new curriculum standard, and the comparative
analysis of these two curriculum standards.
Chapter 4: Research Design and Implementation.This chapter mainly introduces the
research object, research questions and research framework involved in the research
design, as well as the research implementation process and methods, including data
collection method and data processing method.
Chapter 5: Research Results and Analysis. This chapter mainly firstly exposes the
overall situation of the intercultural competence representation in the national college
entrance examination English papers. Secondly, it uncovers the distribution and the
content types of intercultural competence in the national college entrance examination
English papers. Lastly, it analyzes the specific content of intercultural competence in the
national college entrance examination English papers.
Chapter 6: Conclusion. This chapter mainly presents the research findings, research
deficiencies and prospects.
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