论文范文:《数字经济治理白皮书(2019)》(节选)汉英翻译实践报告

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 09:49
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
数字经济是指以数字化信息和知识为关键生产要素的广泛的经济活动。在新冠肺炎疫 情肆虐的背景下,数字技术提高了现有产业的生产力,数字经济成为推动各国经济发展的 重要动力
 数字经济是指以数字化信息和知识为关键生产要素的广泛的经济活动。在新冠肺炎疫
情肆虐的背景下,数字技术提高了现有产业的生产力,数字经济成为推动各国经济发展的
重要动力。因此,需要为数字经济提供一套更为完善的治理体系来加快促进经济复苏和产
业转型。
译者选取了中国通信院于 2019年 12月发布的《数字经济治理白皮书(2019)》作为翻
译任务的源文本,对其中三章进行翻译。所选部分全面概述了数字经济治理的现状和挑战,
聚焦数据治理,为数字经济治理做出了展望。译者根据翻译目的论三原则,解决翻译过程
中遇到的难点,并选取具有代表性的例子进行案例分析。
本报告由五部分组成。第一部分介绍了项目的背景信息、目的及意义。第二部分是任
务描述,包括源文本及其特征的介绍和目标读者的分类。第三部分为过程描述,涉及翻译
准备工作、翻译过程和质量控制。第四部分是案例分析,其中译者根据翻译目的论,从词
汇、句法和语篇三个层面对一些典型的例子进行分析。在词汇层面,对于专业术语和范畴
词,译者采用直译等翻译方法对其进行翻译;在句法层面,针对源文本中常使用的多谓语
长句和无主句,译者运用转换法处理多谓语长句,采用增词法等翻译方法来翻译无主句;
在篇章层面,由于中英文在衔接手段的使用方面存在差异,译者采用省略等方法实现目标
文本的衔接与连贯,并通过增词法来显化句子间的隐性逻辑关系,这符合目标读者的语言
习惯。第五章为结论,主要总结了翻译过程中的收获和不足。
通过翻译实践和实践报告的撰写,译者对于信息型文本有了进一步的了解,同时丰富
了目的论方面的相关知识。基于目的论,译者通过翻译实践,提高了自身的翻译能力。但
是,由于译者的翻译经验不足,同时也缺乏相关专业知识,译文难免存在不完善之处。希
望该实践报告能为类似文本的翻译提供一些帮助。
关键词:数字经济治理;信息型文本;目的论;翻译方法
iii
Contents
Contents
Abstract...........................................................................................................................................i
摘要................................................................................................................................................iii
1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................1
 1.1 Background of the Project..................................................................................................1
 1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Project.............................................................................2
2. Task Description........................................................................................................................3
 2.1 Introduction to the Source Text..........................................................................................3
 2.2 Features of the Source Text................................................................................................3
 2.3 Target Readers....................................................................................................................4
3. Process Description ...................................................................................................................5
 3.1 Preparation for Translation.................................................................................................5
 3.1.1 Theorerical Foundation ............................................................................................5
 3.1.2 Preparation of References and Parallel Texts...........................................................6
 3.1.3 Translation Plan........................................................................................................6
 3.2 Translation Process.............................................................................................................7
 3.2.1 Understanding of the Source Text............................................................................7
 3.2.2 Production of the Target Text ...................................................................................7
 3.2.3 Revision of the Target Text ......................................................................................8
 3.3 Quality Assurance ..............................................................................................................8
 3.3.1 Translation Tools ......................................................................................................8
 3.3.2 Establishment of Term Bank ....................................................................................9
 3.3.3 Suggestions from Experts.........................................................................................9
 3.3.4 Feedback from Native Speakers.............................................................................10
4. Case Analysis ...........................................................................................................................11
 4.1 Translation and Analysis at the Lexical Level.................................................................. 11
 4.1.1 Translation of Professional Terminology ............................................................... 11
 4.1.2 Translation of Category Words...............................................................................13
 4.2 Translation and Analysis at the Syntactic Level...............................................................14
 4.2.1 Translation of Long Sentences with Multiple Predicates.......................................14
 4.2.2 Translation of Subjectless Sentences......................................................................16
 4.3 Translation and Analysis at the Textual Level..................................................................17
 4.3.1 Reproduction of ST Grammatical Cohesion in the Target Text .............................17
Contents
4.3.2 Reproduction of ST Lexical Cohesion in the Target Text ......................................18
4.3.3 Reproduction of ST Implicit Logical Relations in the Target Text ........................20
5. Conclusion................................................................................................................................23
References ....................................................................................................................................24
Appendices ...................................................................................................................................25
Appendix I Source Text & Target Text...................................................................................25
Appendix II Term Bank..........................................................................................................58
Acknowledgements......................................................................................................................62
1. Introduction
1. Introduction
At present, the digital economy plays an increasingly important role in industrial upgrading
all over the world, with a huge influence on the economic society. Meanwhile, it challenges the
existing governance system. How to promote effective governance of the digital economy has
become a global issue. Therefore, China and other foreign countries are finding ways to improve
the governance system for the digital economy.
Based on that, this part introduces the background of the project and the purpose and
significance of the project in detail.
1.1 Background of the Project
The rapid development of information technologies makes material preparation for the arrival
of the digital economy. Nowadays, the digital economy has become the driving force for the
development of the global economy and the commanding height of industrial competition.
Therefore, the leaders of our country attach great importance to this regard.
At the Fifth Session of the 12th National People’s Congress of the CPC, Premier Li Keqiang
stressed, “We will push forward with the Internet Plus initiative and speed up the development of
the digital economy.”1 At the 26th APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting, President Xi Jinping
emphasized, “We should implement the Internet and Digital Economy Roadmap, release the
potential of the digital economy, strengthen the construction of digital infrastructure, and close the
digital divide.”2 In this context, with the support of the Internet Plus initiative, the national big
data strategy and other action plans, the digital economy has made great contribution to the GDP
growth of our country, especially in the new era after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.
However, some problems such as data breaches have arisen during this process. Meanwhile,
the existing countermeasures cannot keep pace with the recurring problems. It is not a single case
in China, but a common challenge in the world. Facing that, the international community is eager
to find ways to improve the global governance system to help the digital economy develop in the
right direction. Thus, the translator selects the White Paper on Digital Economy Governance (2019)
as the source text to translate. The translation of the source text is helpful to convey China’s new
requirements and approaches in digital economy governance on the basis of a comprehensive
overview of foreign countermeasures in this field, and it can promote international exchanges
among different countries in this regard.
1 《政府工作报告 2017》,人民网,2017-3-16。http://lianghui.people.com.cn/2017/n1/2017/0316/c410899-29150065-2.html
2 《习近平出席亚太经合组织第二十六次领导人非正式会议并发表重要讲话》,人民网,2018-11-19。
http://politics.people.com.cn/n1/2018/1119/c1024-30407128.html
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1. Introduction
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Project
With the progress of the times and the development of technologies, the digital economy
plays a crucial part in the national economy. Nowadays, since China has become the world’s
second-largest economy, the development of its digital economy has drawn the attention of experts
at home and abroad. At the same time, many counties have been developing new ways to improve
their governance in the digital economy. Upon that, the translation project is significant, and its
purpose and significance are as follows.
The purpose of the project can be divided into two aspects. The project is designed to provide
foreign experts with information about China’s digital economy. The translation of the source text
may be helpful for them. Furthermore, the project aims to promote international exchanges on the
governance of the digital economy. Through the project, China’s countermeasures about digital
economy governance can be conveyed to the international community and some valuable feedback
from abroad may be gained at this point.
The significance of the project includes three aspects. Firstly, it is helpful for foreigners who
are interested in the situation of China’s digital economy governance and the trend of the digital
economy. Secondly, since digital economy governance has become a global issue, the project may
be conducive to the building of a sound governance system for the global digital economy. Thirdly,
it can provide some references for similar texts without official translations. Meanwhile, the
translator can gain some valuable experiences from the translation project.
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2. Task Description
2. Task Description
The task description consists of three parts: the description of the source text, features of the
source text, and the classification of target readers. The description of the source text mainly
discusses the source and the content of the source text and why it is chosen for translation practice.
In addition, the language and stylistic features of the source text are introduced, and the target
readers are classified into three groups.
2.1 Introduction to the Source Text
On December 28, 2019, the White Paper on Digital Economy Governance (2019) (hereinafter
referred to as White Paper) was released by the China Academy of Information and
Communications Technology (CAICT) which mainly pays attention to the latest trend in the field
of information and data and releases relevant articles.
The White Paper comprises six chapters. The translator selects the first, second and sixth
chapters of the source text for translation practice. The first chapter provides a panoramic view of
the situation of digital economy governance and introduces China’s new requirements in this
regard. Therefore, it is necessary to translate the first chapter to lay the foundation for the
understanding of the following chapters. The second chapter mainly introduces one of the specific
aspects of digital economy governance, namely data governance. Since data breaches have become
the hot topic in today’s governance issues, the translation of the second chapter is of great
importance. The sixth chapter, as the last chapter of the White Paper, relates to the trend and
prospect of digital economy governance and corresponding governance suggestions. The
translation of the sixth chapter may provide inspiration for the international community in digital
economy governance and may help the building of governance system for the global digital
economy, so the translator also selects the sixth chapter for translation.
2.2 Features of the Source Text
In terms of the text type, the source text is the informative text. It is one of the three text
types which are summarized by Reiss on the basis of the categorization of the three functions of
language put forward by Karl Bühler (Reiss, 2004: 108). In accordance with Reiss’s Text
Typology, the source text, as an informative text, is content-focused and puts emphasis on
representing objects and facts, and its language is objective, formal and logical.
In terms of the stylistic features, they can be described specifically. Firstly, professional
terminology related to the digital economy and category words are commonly used in the source
text, so it is difficult for translators to carry out the translation task. Secondly, some political
3
2. Task Description
guidelines are mentioned in the source text, which has similarities with the Report on the Work
of the Government in sentence pattern, so long sentences with multiple predicates and subjectless
sentences are commonly adopted in the source text. Thirdly, the source text, as a Chinese text,
contains implicit logical relations and cohesive devices, through which semantic cohesion and
textual coherence are realized.
Considering the above-mentioned features, the translator needs to pay attention to the
language and stylistic features of the source text when carrying out the translation task.
2.3 Target Readers
According to the content of the source text, the translator divides the target readers into three
groups.
The first group involves foreigners who would like to know the current situation and new
information about digital economy governance. The target text can help them gain more messages
in this field.
The second group comprises government officers and experts who are eager to improve the
governance system of the digital economy. They may have some ideas about how to improve the
governance system by reading the target text.
The last group includes the students who major in English translation. It is possible for them
to get some references when similar translation difficulties appear in their translation tasks, and
they can learn some translation methods from this report.
4
3. Process Description
3. Process Description
The process description includes three parts, namely the preparation for translation, the
translation process, and quality assurance. Each part is of great importance and necessity. The three
parts are introduced in sequence.
3.1 Preparation for Translation
The preparation for translation is the first step during the whole translation process. First, she
makes a theoretical foundation for the translation task. Second, she searches for references and
parallel texts to make the target text more readable and acceptable. Third, the translation plan is
designed, which can ensure that the translation task is carried out in an orderly and timely manner.
3.1.1 Theoretical Foundation
After selecting the source text, what the translator should do is to make a theoretical
foundation for the translation task. The theoretical foundation provides guidance and ideas for her
to accomplish the translation task smoothly. Considering that the purpose of the translation of the
source text is to promote international exchanges in the governance of the digital economy, the
translator should keep the clear purpose in mind during the translation process. Among the
translation theories, Skopos Theory, which has a great influence in the history of translation studies,
emphasizes that “a translational action is determined by its skopos which means ‘aim’ or ‘purpose’”
(Reiss and Vermeer 2013: 94). Therefore, Skopos theory is selected as the theoretical foundation
of the translation task.
In the 1970s, “skopos”, the Greek word, was introduced by Hans J. Vermeer as a technical
term for the purpose of a translation and of the action of translating. The Skopos Theory has three
rules. As the first rule, the skopos rule is paramount, which means the target text is determined by
its skopos (Munday, 2016: 127). That is to say, “each text is produced for a given purpose and
should serve this purpose” (Vermeer, 1989: 173). Thus, the translator should make this rule a
priority when she translates the source text. The second rule, namely the coherence rule, illustrates
that the target text must be interpretable as coherent with its receiver’s situation (Reiss & Vermeer
2013: 101). The third rule, namely the fidelity rule, emphasizes that there must be coherence
between the source text and target text (bid.: 102). Therefore, when carrying out the translation
task, the translator should comply with the coherence rule and the fidelity rule to realize the
coherence of the target text and make it faithful to the source text.
For the purpose of exchanging information of the source text and presenting a better target
text for the readers, the translator combines translation practice with Skopos Theory in the
5
3. Process Description
translation process.
3.1.2 Preparation of References and Parallel Texts
References and parallel texts are important for a translation task, so many efforts are made in
the preparation of them.
The translator makes preparation for references, which include books about translation
theories, Chinese-English translation and linguistics. She refers to Introducing Translation Studies
(Munday, 2016), Towards a General Theory of Translational Action (Reiss & Vermeer, 2013) and
other theoretical books to help her lay a solid theoretical foundation. Then, she reads through
Linguistics: A Course Book (Hu Zhuanglin et al., 1992) and Essential Translation from English to
Chinese (Chen Hongwei, 2001) to learn more knowledge about linguistics and Chinese-English
translation. By referring to these books, the translator can apply the knowledge to translation
practice.
 Moreover, parallel texts are also referred to by the translator. Parallel texts in a broad sense
include the target-language materials similar to the source text, which are mainly used for helping
the translator to have a deep understanding of the source text. (Li Changshuan, 2009: 91). Given
that some political guidelines are mentioned in the source text, the English version of Report on
the Work of the Government (2020) is taken as a parallel text of the source text to ensure the
accuracy of the translation of political guidelines. Besides, since some part of the source text relates
to data breaches and privacy protection, General Data Protection Regulation released by the
European Union is also regarded as a parallel text to help her produce an idiomatic target text. At
last, due to the lack of relevant knowledge about the digital economy, she also refers to some
relevant books such as the 2020 International Conference on Applications and Techniques in
Cyber Intelligence (Abawajy et al., 2021), which is helpful for the translator to have a better
understanding of the source text.
 With the help of the references and parallel texts mentioned above, the target text can be more
readable and acceptable, and the translation task can be carried out efficiently.
3.1.3 Translation Plan
The translation plan is helpful for the translator to complete the translation task on time. As
shown in Table 1, the specific time arrangement and task process are introduced in chronological
order.
Table 1 Translation Plan
Time arrangement Task process
April 2020 - May 2020 Searching for the Source text and Reference
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3. Process Description
May 2020 - July 2020 Translating part of the Source Text and Writing
the Report Proposal
July 2020 - August 2020 Translating the remaining part of the Source Text
September 2020 - November 2020 Finishing the Translation Draft
November 2020 - December 2020 Modifying the Translation Draft
December 2020 - January 2021 Remodifying the Translation Draft and writing the
Practice Report
February 2021 - March 2021 Finishing the Practice Report
March 2021 - April 2021 Revising the Practice Report
3.2 Translation Process
According to Nida’s theory in the translation process, four translation stages are put forward:
firstly, to analyze the source text at morphological and grammatical level; secondly, to transfer the
analysis result in mind from the source text to the target text; thirdly, to restructure the target text
(Nida & Taber, 1969); fourthly, to test the target text (Nida, 1982). The four stages of the translation
process are conductive to produce acceptable and readable target text. This part mainly introduces
the understanding of the source text, the production of the target text, and the revision of the target
text.
3.2.1 Understanding of the Source Text
Understanding the source text may correspond to analyzing the source text which is the first
stage put forward by Nida. Since the source text is content-focused, the translator should
understand the content of the source text at first. Then she reads some documents related to the
digital economy and its governance to have a deeper understanding of the source text.
In addition, for facilitating the translation practice, the language and stylistic features of the
source text are analyzed specifically. With regard to the language feature, since the source text is
the informative text, its language is objective, formal and logical. With regard to stylistic features,
the use of professional terminology and category words makes the source text precise and
professional; the adoption of long sentences with multiple predicates and subjectless sentences
shows various sentence patterns of the source text; cohesive devices and implicit logical relations
are commonly employed in the source text, which presents textual coherence and logical
compactness of the source text.
3.2.2 Production of the Target Text
Producing the target text can be regarded as the combination of the second and third stages
7
3. Process Description
listed by Nida, namely transfer and restructuring.
When producing the target text, the translator should keep the analysis of the source text in
mind, and then she translates it into a readable target text by means of computer-aided translation
(CAT) tools, references and parallel texts. At the same time, by combining Skopos Theory with
appropriate methods, the translator restructures the order of clauses and sentences of the target text
to make it comply with the expression habits of the English readers.
3.2.3 Revision of the Target Text
Revising the target text has similarities with testing which is the last stage of the translation
process proposed by Nida in 1982.
After finishing the first draft of the target text, grammatical errors and spelling errors must be
corrected. At this point, the translator looks up some difficult words in dictionaries such as Oxford
Advanced Learner ’s English-Chinese Dictionary and refers to English grammar books like A New
Advanced English Grammar (Zhang Zhenbang, 2013) to ensure accurate word spelling and
English grammar. Meanwhile, in order to produce an acceptable and fluent target text, it is
necessary to get some suggestions from experts and native speakers and to modify the target text
according to their opinions.
3.3 Quality Assurance
Quality assurance is crucial for the translation task, which relates to the accuracy of the target
text. There are four steps for quality assurance. The first step is to use translation tools that can
improve the efficiency of the translation. The second step is to establish a term bank that will
ensure the consistency of the terms. The third step is to ask the experts for advice so as to make
the target text more fluent and accurate. The last step is to acquire feedback from English native
speakers. It is believed that the quality of the target text can be guaranteed through the four steps.
3.3.1 Translation Tools
During the translation process, the translator uses many translation tools to improve the
quality and efficiency of the translation.
First, since the source text is a PDF file, the translator uses Wondershare PDF Converter to
convert it into editable words and then proofreads them according to the original PDF file. In this
way, the quality of the source text can be guaranteed.
Second, the translator imports the editable source text into the software called SDL Trados
Studio 2017 for translation and then exports the target text. Third, the translator looks up the terms
and sentences in the corpus and term bank, further improving the efficiency of the translation work.
8
3. Process Description
At last, after producing the draft of the target text, Xbench plug-in, a QA tool, is used with
SDL Trados Studio 2012 to correct errors, such as numeric mismatch, alphanumeric mismatch,
double blank, and inconsistency in the target text. On this basis, the quality of the target text can
be improved a lot.
3.3.2 Establishment of Term Bank
The SDL Multiterm is used to establish a term bank. When the same term appears once again,
the term bank can automatically provide the same translation for it, thus avoiding the inconsistency
of the terms and saving the time of translation at the same time. There are some terms as shown in
Table 2.
Table 2 Term Bank (Partial)
Source Text Target Text
大数据 big data
共享经济 sharing economy
区块链 blockchain
人工智能 artificial intelligence
社会主义基本经济制度 the basic socialist economic system
数字货币 digital currency
数字经济治理 digital economy governance
物联网 Internet of Things
战略机遇期 period of strategic opportunity
3.3.3 Suggestions from Experts
Since the source text involves the field of the digital economy, some professional terms are
hard to understand in the translation process. Therefore, the translator seeks guidance from experts
in the School of Economics and the School of Information Science and Engineering of her
university. In the process of mutual communication, they give detailed suggestions according to
their professional knowledge and rich experiences. After that, she understands the meaning of
professional terms and then produces better translations for those terms. What’s more, she consults
senior interpreters of her internship company, and then they point out the inadequacies of her target
text and provides corresponding countermeasures.
With the help of experts, the misunderstanding of professional terms may be cleared up and
some mistakes in English grammar and word spelling may be lessened to a great extent.
9
3. Process Description
3.3.4 Feedback from Native Speakers
In order to enhance the readability and coherence of the target text, it is necessary to get
feedback from native speakers. By communicating with international students and foreign teachers
from English-speaking countries, the translator modifies the target text and adjusts the order of
some sentences to make it more in line with the expression habits of the target readers. In this way,
a more authentic and fluent target text will be presented to the target readers.
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4. Case Analysis
4. Case Analysis
In the process of translation, the translator finds that some tough problems are worth
discussing. In this part, she introduces some translation difficulties at three levels, including the
lexical level, the syntactic level and the textual level. According to Skopos Theory, the translator
provides some translation methods to deal with these problems, which can provide some references
for other related translation tasks.
4.1 Translation and Analysis at the Lexical Level
After translating and analyzing the source text, the translator finds professional terminology
and category words are hard to deal with. In the following examples, suitable translation methods
are used to deal with terminologies and category words.
4.1.1 Translation of Professional Terminology
Terminology is a collection of notional appellations in specific disciplines, which is also
known as a noun or a technical noun (different from nouns in grammar) in our country (Wei
Mengfen, 2014: 5). It is usually defined as a word or phrase referring to a concept in a professional
field (Zheng Shupu, 2012: 103). In the source text, many professional terms are expressed by
phrases. On this basis, the nature and meaning of these terms should be correctly presented in the
target text. In the following examples, the translator adopts appropriate methods to translate the
professional terms.
Example 1
Source text: 随着算法的日益普及,算法所引发的经济社会问题引起了广泛关注,如推荐算法相关
的“信息茧房”问题、定价算法相关的“大数据杀熟”问题等。
Target text: With the increasing popularity of algorithms, many economic and social problems caused by
the algorithms such as “information cocoons” related to the recommendation algorithm and
“big data killing (big-data price discrimination against regular customers)” related to the
pricing algorithm have aroused wide concern.
In example 1, after searching relevant information, the translator found that this term “信息
茧房” comes from Infotopia written by Cass R. Sunstein. This term refers to a phenomenon that
people tend to choose the information that they are interested in, thus narrowing down their horizon
just like a silkworm making a cocoon for itself. In accordance with the coherence rule of Skopos
Theory, the target text must be translated in such a way that it makes sense for its receivers, given
11
4. Case Analysis
their circumstances, knowledge and needs (Munday, 2016: 128). Therefore, the translator uses
literal translation to translate “信息茧房” into “information cocoons” which can be acceptable and
comprehensible for the English readers, so that the target text can be more coherent and fluent.
In the same example, the professional term “大数据杀熟” is a buzzword in the economic
domain. When translating this term, the translator should have a full and correct understanding of
it. Firstly, literally speaking, the word “杀熟” is the abbreviation of “宰杀熟客” whose meaning
is “deceiving regular customers”. Secondly, from the perspective of connotation, this term “大数
据杀熟” indicates a phenomenon of using big-data analysis to set differential pricing for regular
customers and new customers. That is to say, for the same product or service, regular customers
need to pay higher prices than new customers. Thirdly, combined with relevant economic
knowledge, the nature of this term “大数据杀熟” belongs to price discrimination. According to
the fidelity rule of Skopos Theory, the ST information received by the translator must be coherent
with the interpretation the translator makes of this information (Munday, 2016: 128). Therefore,
in order to translate this term “大数据杀熟” accurately, the translator borrows the expression “big
data killing” from an English article “Economic Thinking of Big Data Killing in the Internet Era
(Jiayao Chen, 2021)” included in the 2020 International Conference on Applications and
Techniques in Cyber Intelligence (Abawajy et al., 2021), and then she makes an annotation to make
the nature and the meaning of this term more clear. Consequently, this term “大数据杀熟” is
translated as “big data killing (big-data price discrimination against regular customers)”. In this
way, the translation of this term may be easy to be understood by English readers and convey the
original meaning of “大数据杀熟” in a clear manner.
Example 2
Source text: 数字经济具有智能化特征,打开“算法黑箱”、赋予算法价值观成为全新治理议题。
Target text: Digital economy is characterized by intelligence. How to open the “black box of algorithms”
and endow algorithms with values has become a new governance issue.
In example 2, “算法黑箱” is a term with a modifier-head construction, in which “算法” is
the modifier and “黑箱” is the head. This term means that the algorithm system is like an unknown
“black box”—users know neither the objects and intentions of the algorithm system nor the
information of algorithm designers and actual controllers because of the complexity of
technologies and exclusive business policies of technology companies and media organizations.
According to Youdao Dictionary, a system or device can be regarded as a black box when nobody
12
4. Case Analysis
knows how it works to produce a particular result.3 Based on the fidelity rule which emphasizes
intertextual coherence, literal translation is adopted to process “算法黑箱” as “black box of
algorithms” that is usually used in English-speaking countries. In this way, the target readers can
accept the target text and read it as fluently as the source readers.
4.1.2 Translation of Category Words
Category words, which are commonly used in Chinese, are the words for presenting the
categories of concepts, such as attributes, behaviors, and phenomena (Lian Shuneng, 1992: 140).
Generally speaking, the category words do not have substantive meaning. These noun
combinations are only empty preliminaries to other words that carry real content (Pinkham, 2000:
11). In accordance with the syntactic functions, the category words can be divided into two types:
nominal category words and verbal category words. The former includes “行为”, “局面” and “情
况”, and the latter comprises “加大….力度” and “采取….态度”. Since the source text is written
in Chinese, many category words need to be handled in the process of translation. With regard to
these category words, omission is usually taken as the main translation method.
Example 3
Source text: 针对数字市场的竞争与垄断问题,数字经济治理需要不断创新垄断规制的理论基础与
政策工具,为数字经济的规范健康发展创造公平竞争的市场环境。
Target text: In view of the competition and monopoly in the digital market, the governance of the digital
economy needs us to continually develop new ways for the theoretical basis and policy tools
for monopoly regulation so as to create a fair market environment for the normative and sound
development of the digital economy.
Example 4
Source text: 据欧盟数据保护委员会(EDPB)监测情况显示,截至 2019 年 7 月,欧盟内部共发生
17 起依据 GDPR 实施行政处罚的案件。
Target text: According to the monitoring of the European Data Protection Board (EDPB), as of July 2019,
there were 17 cases of administrative penalties based on the GDPR within the European Union.
In example 3, “竞争与垄断” carries the real content of the underlined words “竞争与垄断
问题”, and “问题” is a category word that has no real meaning but makes the Chinese sentence
more balance and fluent. Similarly, in example 4, “情况” of the underlined words “监测情况” is
a category word that is meaningless and just balances the structure of the Chinese sentence, and
3 http://dict.youdao.com/w/black%20box/#keyfrom=dict2.top, accessed on March 30, 2021.
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4. Case Analysis
“监测” carries the main information of “监测情况”. Since the source text is an informative text
which focuses on the content instead of the form, only the words that carry the real content need
to be translated. If the translator respectively translates “竞争垄断问题” and “监测情况” into “the
problems of competition and monopoly” and “monitoring situation”, the English sentence would
be redundant for English readers. In accordance with the coherence rule, the target text must be
internally coherent. Upon that, the translator adopts the translation method of omission, so that the
target text may be more coherent and consistent with the idiomatic expression of target readers.
4.2 Translation and Analysis at the Syntactic Level
Since the source text is a Chinese text which aims to provide some suggestions for the
governance of the digital economy, subjectless sentences are used frequently. What’s more, it is
common to see long sentences with multiple predicates in the source text. In this part, the two
kinds of sentences are to be discussed. Conversion and amplification are employed in the
translation of the two kinds of sentences.
4.2.1 Translation of Long Sentences with Multiple Predicates
Since Chinese is a dynamic language, several predicates served by verbs may be
simultaneously used in Chinese sentences. The source text is a Chinese text which contains long
sentences with multiple predicates, so it is difficult for the translator to transfer them into English
sentences. In the following examples, the translator uses some appropriate methods to convert the
original form of verbs into the gerund and infinitive form of verbs, which makes the English
sentences comply with the expression habits of English readers.
Example 5
Source text: 数字平台在极大降低交易成本、提高资源配置效率的同时,也带来了资源重组与权力
重构,模糊了政府与市场的边界,对传统的政府与企业的关系、政府与市场的关系产
生巨大冲击。
Target text: While greatly reducing the transaction cost and improving the efficiency of resource allocation,
the digital platform brings resource reorganization and power reconstruction, and blurs the
boundary between the government and the market, thus impacting greatly on the traditional
relationships between the government and the enterprise and between the government and the
market.
In example 5, the five verbs “降低”, “提高”, “带来”, “模糊” and “产生” are commonly used
predicates of Chinese sentences. On the contrary, there is generally only one predicate that is
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4. Case Analysis
served by the verb and plays a central role in an English sentence. Due to the distinction in the use
of predicates between Chinese and English, the translator should use proper methods to translate
this sentence.
After analysis, it can be found that “在…的同时,也…” in the Chinese sentence is used to
show the parallel relation between clauses, so the four verbs “降低”, “提高”, “带来” and “模糊”
can be processed as the same form of verbs. However, according to the context, this sentence
mainly illustrates the disadvantages of the digital platform, so that the two verbs “带来” and “模
糊” are the best choices for predicates which can convey the major information, and the first two
verbs “降低” and “提高” should not be processed into predicates. As for “产生”, its subject is “数
字平台” that results in “巨大冲击”. In other words, “产生巨大冲击” can be regarded as the result
brought by “数字平台”. Therefore, in order to realize the aim of conveying the key information
of the target text emphasized by the skopos rule, the translator processes the verbs “带来” and “模
糊” as predicates, namely “brings” and “blurs”, and then converts “降低”, “提高” and “产生” into
the gerund form of verbs, namely, “reducing”, “improving” and “impacting”. Moreover, the
conjunction “thus” is added to make the logical relations between clauses explicit. In this way, the
target text can be read fluently and the target readers can accurately catch the major information
of the target text.
Example 6
Source text: 我国作为全球第二大数字经济体,也应增强数字经济关键领域规则制定能力,强化布
局,把握机遇,在全球数字经济治理规则创新中贡献中国智慧和中国方案。
Target text: As the second-largest digital economy in the world, China should also enhance its ability to
make rules in key areas of the digital economy, strengthen its layout, and seize opportunities
to offer China’s wisdom and approach to the innovation of governance rules for the global
digital economy.
In example 6, the verbs “增强”, “强化”, “把握” and “贡献” are predicates of the Chinese
sentence and have the same subject “我国”. By analyzing the relations between clauses, the
translator finds that the first clause shows the status of our country, the second, third and fourth
clauses are measures for improvement, and the last clause indicates the purpose of improvement.
Based on the skopos rule, conveying China’s new requirements and measures in digital economy
governance is the purpose of this translation task. Therefore, the translator selects the three verbs
“增强”, “强化” and “把握” as predicates of the English sentence, namely “enhance”, “strengthen”
and “seize”, and adopts conversion to convert “贡献” into the infinitive form of the verb, namely
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4. Case Analysis
“to contribute”. In this way, the major information of the target text can be presented to the target
readers.
4.2.2 Translation of Subjectless Sentences
As a common syntactic phenomenon, subjectless sentences refer to sentences with physical
forms such as subject omission and subject vacancy (Ma Wenxi, 2004). The subjectless sentences
are quite common in Chinese texts. However, in general, English sentences cannot lack subjects,
with few exceptions (Peng Yi, 1997). The translation of Chinese subjectless sentences should start
from the differences in syntactic structures between Chinese and English. There are some
appropriate translation skills such as adding words and using passive sentences, command
sentences, non-predicate structures and inversion (He Ning, 2016). In the following examples, the
translator adopts formal subject and passive voice to deal with subjectless sentences in the source
text.
Example 7
Source text: 因此,需要强化竞争政策基础地位,以竞争政策来协调相关政策。
Target text: Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the fundamental position of the competition policies,
through which the relevant policies can be coordinated.
In example 7, it is obvious that the Chinese sentence is a subjectless sentence. Though the
subject is omitted, Chinese readers can still make sense of the sentence. However, subjects usually
cannot be omitted in English sentences, except in imperative sentences and some idiomatic
expressions. Based on the coherence rule, for making the target text interpretable as coherent with
its receivers, the translator should select an appropriate subject for the English sentence in the
process of translation. According to the context, the translator finds that the omitted subject in the
Chinese sentence is not important. That is to say, the important information of the Chinese sentence
is the remaining sentence elements rather than the subject. Thus, the formal subject “it” is added
in the target text, and the real subject is “to strengthen the fundamental position of the competition
policies”. In this way, the target text is consistent with the expression habits of English people and
may be acceptable and understandable.
Example 8
Source text: 但是,在对数据资源进行开发利用的同时,也不可避免的引发了一系列难题。
Target text: However, a series of difficult problems are inevitably caused during the development and
utilization of data resources.
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4. Case Analysis
In example 8, the subject is omitted in the Chinses sentence mentioned above. According to
the context, it is hard to determine the omitted subject. In order to avoid the ambiguity of the
subject and make the English sentence complete, the passive voice is employed in the target text,
so that the phrase “一系列难题” becomes the subject of the English sentence. At the same time,
“在对数据资源进行开发利用的同时” is processed as a prepositional phrase “during the
development and utilization of data resources”. Consequently, the target text conforms to the
English grammar and achieves its internal coherence, complying with the coherence rule of the
Skopos Theory.
4.3 Translation and Analysis at the Textual Level
In a text, cohesion is the visible network, while coherence just like the invisible network
(Chen Hongwei, 2001: 39). Halliday and Hasan (1976) divided cohesion into two categories:
grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion. The two kinds of cohesion, which are usually
presented by grammatical cohesive devices and lexical cohesive devices, can be used to realize
textual coherence, while sometimes the coherence of a text can be achieved by means of implicit
logical relations between clauses and sentences.
In this part, the translator analyzes some cases combined with Skopos Theory and discusses
how to reproduce grammatical cohesion, lexical cohesion, and implicit logical relations of the
source text.
4.3.1 Reproduction of ST Grammatical Cohesion in the Target Text
Grammatical cohesive devices comprise reference, ellipsis, conjunction and substitution (Qin
Hongwu & Wang Kefei, 2010: 190), through which the grammatical cohesion is realized. In the
source text, demonstrative reference and ellipsis are used to realize textual cohesion and coherence.
In the following examples, the translator adopts different methods to deal with demonstrative
reference and ellipsis.
Example 9
Source text: 截至目前,包容性框架内国家和地区尚未就应对数字化税收挑战的长期解决方案达成
一致意见。这正是各国对数字经济治理议题存争议与冲突的典型体现,而且随着全球
范围内数字经济进一步发展,类似分歧会不断增加。
Target text: So far, member countries and regions within the inclusive framework have not reached an
agreement on a long-term solution against the challenges of digital taxation. That is the typical
manifestation of disputes and conflicts over the governance of the digital economy in various
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4. Case Analysis
countries. What’s more, with the further development of the global digital economy, similar
differences will continue to increase.
Since the Chinese speaker tends to draw the stated object closer to himself/herself
psychologically, demonstrative reference “这” is usually employed in a Chinese text. Instead,
English people generally tend to use “that” or “those” rather than “this” or “these”. It can be seen
from example 9 that only one word “这” is used to avoid repetition in the source text, and “这”
refers to the situation of “未就….达成一致意见”. Due to the different use of demonstrative
references between Chinese and English, “这” cannot be translated into “this” literally. According
to the coherence rule of Skopos Theory, the translator must make the target text interpretable as
coherent with its receiver’s situation. Considering the expression habits of English speakers, the
translator translates “这” into “that” to make the two English sentences more coherent, and then
the target text can be accepted by the English readers in a better way.
Example 10
Source text: 2018 年 2 月,新加坡加入亚太经济合作组织(APEC)倡议构建的跨境隐私规则体系
(CBPRs),同年 11 月,澳大利亚也加入该体系,至此,APEC 的 21 个经济体中有 8
个加入了 CBPRs 体系,进一步扩大了亚太地区以美国为主导的多边数据跨境流动机
制。
Target text: In February 2018, Singapore joined the Cross Border Privacy Rules System (CBPRs) initiated
by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). In November of the same year, Australia
also joined the system. So far, eight of 21 economies in the APEC have joined the CBPRs,
further expanding the US-led multilateral cross-border data flow mechanisms in the Asia-
Pacific region.
Ellipsis is used to avoid repetition and makes a text more compact. In example 10, it can be
found from the context that ellipsis is used in the source text, in which “8 个” refers to “8 个经济
体”. It is common to see certain components of a text are omitted in Chinese and English. In
accordance with the coherence rule of Skopos Theory, it is necessary to make the components of
the target text are well connected. Therefore, the translator uses omission and does not need to
repeat “经济体”. Instead, “8 个” is combined with “21 个经济体” to be translated as “eight of 21
economies”, which enhances the coherence of the target text.
4.3.2 Reproduction of ST Lexical Cohesion in the Target Text
Lexical cohesive devices can be divided into repetition, categorization relations, general
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4. Case Analysis
words, similarity and collocation (Hu Zhuanglin, 1998: 115), through which lexical cohesion is
achieved. Specifically, categorization relations include hyponymy, part-whole relation, collectivity,
and consistency (bid.: 122). In the following examples, repetition and hyponymy are used to
realize the lexical cohesion of the source text. Combined with Skopos Theory, suitable methods
are used to realize the cohesion and coherence of the target text.
Example 11
Source text: 2017 年至 2019 年,美欧日三方多次举行高层会谈并发表六份联合声明,其中两份联合
声明就数字贸易和电子商务的有关问题进行了说明,表明三方以合作促进发展的意愿,
并通过数字保护改善商业环境。
Target text: From 2017 to 2019, the United States, the European Union and Japan held several high-level
talks and issued six joint statements, two of which illustrate the relevant issues about digital
trade and e-commerce to show that the three parties are willing to work together to promote
development and improve the business environment through digital protection.
Repetition means that the same word or phrase appears repeatedly in a text. By using
repetition, the lexical cohesion of the source text is achieved. In example 11, “三方” and “联合声
明” are repeatedly mentioned. It is obvious that “三方” is a union set of “美欧日”, that is, “三方”
includes “美日欧”. In the process of translation, if the translator uses literal translation to translate
“三方” and “联合声明” repeatedly, the target text would be tedious and lengthy. In accordance
with the coherence rule of Skopos Theory, the translator uses omission to realize the internal
coherence of the target text. Therefore, the translator omits the first “三方” to translate “美欧日
三方” into “the United States, the European Union and Japan”, while the second “三方” is literally
translated into “the three parties”. Then she uses an attributive clause and translates “两份联合声
明” into “two of which”. In this way, the target text is more coherent and complies with the
language habits and background of English readers.
Example 12
Source text: 《指南》则在现有规范的基础上再次重申了“个人数据”与“非个人数据” 的区别,
并进一步明确:如果数据库中的“个人数据”和“非个人数据”可以独立,则分别适
用《条例》和 GDPR。如果两类信息不可分离,则统一适用 GDPR。
Target text: Based on the existing norms, the Guidelines reiterates the differences between “personal data”
and “non-personal data”. It further clarifies: if the “personal data” and “non-personal data” in
the database can be independent of each other, the Regulation and the GDPR are applied
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4. Case Analysis
respectively; and if the two cannot be separated, the GDPR is applied uniformly.
Hyponymy involves the notion of “meaning inclusion”, that is, words with general meanings
include those with specific meanings (Hu Zhuanglin et al., 1992: 148). In example 12, hyponymy,
a lexical cohesive device, is employed in the source text to avoid repetition, so that “个人数据”
and “非个人数据” is replaced by “两类信息”. It can be seen that “数据” is the hyponym, and “信
息” is the superordinate. Considering the coherence of the target text, it is a better way to use
omission in the target text. At this point, on the basis of the coherence rule of Skopos Theory, the
translator omits “信息” and then translates “两类信息” into “the two” to make the target text more
coherent, so that the target text can be read by English readers in a coherent and fluent way.
4.3.3 Reproduction of ST Implicit Logical Relations in the Target Text
Parataxis, as a major feature of Chinese, means that the connection of words, phrases and
sentences mainly depends on their internal logical relations. On the contrary, English emphasizes
hypotaxis, because the structural function of English conjunctions is more stable than that of
Chinese (Liu Miqing, 2006: 302). Accordingly, in some cases, though few explicit cohesive
devices are used in a Chinese text, Chinese people can still understand the logical relations hidden
between sentences and read the sentences fluently. For English people, cohesive devices such as
conjunctions and linking words or phrases are often used to express explicit logical relations
between sentences. Under the guidance of the coherence rule of Skopos Theory, the translator uses
linking words and phrases to make the implicit logical relations explicit in the target text.
Example 13
Source text: 互联网、大数据、人工智能、物联网、区块链等新技术的发展,给现有的数字经济治理
体系与治理能力造成了前所未有的挑战,生产关系与生产力存在不适应。落后的数字
经济治理体系势必会约束数字经济的发展,使我国错失重要的战略机遇期。
Target text: Due to the development of new technologies such as the Internet, big data, artificial intelligence,
the Internet of Things and blockchain, the existing governance system and governance
capacity of the digital economy are facing unprecedented challenges. For example, relations
of production come into conflict with productive forces. Under the circumstances, a backward
governance system is bound to constrain the development of the digital economy and make
China miss the important period of strategic opportunity.
In example 13, it can be found that the clauses of the first Chinese sentence are connected by
implicit logical relations. What’s more, there is no explicit cohesive device used between the first
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4. Case Analysis
Chinese sentence and the second Chinese sentence.
In this case, the first step is to analyze the relations between clauses and sentences in the
source text. In the first Chinese sentence, the verb “造成” implicitly shows that there is a causal
relationship between the subject “新技术的发展” and the object “挑战”, and the phrase “生产力
和生产关系不适应” is one of the specific features of “挑战”. As for the logical relations between
the two Chinese sentences, it can be considered that the former is the background of the latter.
After analysis, the translator divides the two Chinese sentences into three English sentences.
In the first English sentence, the linking word “due to” is added to make the causal relationship
between the two clauses explicit. In the second English sentence, the phrase “for example” is used
to explicitly show “生产力和生产关系不适应” is the embodiment of “挑战”. In the third English
sentence, the phrase “under the circumstances” is added to illustrate the previous two English
sentences are the background of the third English sentence, thus making the three English
sentences join smoothly. By adding linking words “due to” and phrases “for example” and “under
the circumstances”, the logical and explicit relations between the English clauses and sentences
are presented, and the coherence of the target text is enhanced, which comply with the coherence
rule of Skopos Theory. In this way, the target text can be accepted and understood by English
readers.
Example 14
Source text: 当前,互联网、大数据、人工智能、区块链、物联网、5G 等新技术迭代迅猛,共享经
济、无人驾驶、数字货币等新业态层出不穷,数字经济成为全球经济增长的新动能。
数字经济能否实现高质量发展,密切关系到我国能否抢抓新一轮科技革命与产业变革
新机遇。
Target text: At present, with the rapid iteration of new technologies such as the Internet, big data, artificial
intelligence, blockchain, the Internet of Things and 5G, and the emergence of new forms of
business such as the sharing economy, driverless vehicles and digital currency, the digital
economy has become a new driving force for global economic growth. Therefore, if China
wants to seize opportunities for the new round of technological revolution and industrial
transformation, the high-quality development of the digital economy needs to be achieved.
In example 14, the source text consists of two Chinese sentences that are connected smoothly
by means of parataxis. Since English tends to be a hypotactic language, English people often use
conjunctions or linking words and phrases to explicitly present the logical relations between
sentences, so that the coherence of a text is achieved. As the coherence rule of Skopos Theory
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4. Case Analysis
states, the target translation must be translated in such a way that it makes sense for the target
translation receivers, given their circumstances, knowledge and needs (Munday, 2016: 128). Thus,
the translator adds the conjunction “therefore” to the target text to show the causal relationship
between the first and second English sentences. In this way, the English sentences can be more
coherent and in line with the expression habits of English readers.