论文范文:一篇管理学论文的英汉翻译实践报告

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 09:51
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
利益相关者理论是管理学领域的研究话题,国内研究者对此问题已有一定的探讨, 介绍了部分西方的研究成果,但是相关论文的译文仍然数量有限。对该领域论文的翻译 有利于国内研
利益相关者理论是管理学领域的研究话题,国内研究者对此问题已有一定的探讨,
介绍了部分西方的研究成果,但是相关论文的译文仍然数量有限。对该领域论文的翻译
有利于国内研究者了解国外的研究动态,具有一定的启发意义。
笔者于 2020 年 3 月受河北大学付鸿彦老师委托,翻译管理学论文《利益相关者的
识别和优先性:类型与关键属性》,译文用于著作《利益相关者视角下战略性企业社会
责任的非财务绩效研究》的编写工作,原文约两万余字。
管理学论文作为社科类文本,语言具有专业性、逻辑性、规范性等特点。在翻译过
程中,笔者遇到了一些难点,并通过各种翻译手段解决了这些困难。在标题翻译方面,
原文使用了一些句子型标题,句式较长,结构复杂,并采用了设问等修辞方式,在中文
社科类论文中并不常见。笔者通过增译、转译、省略、句子结构重组等方法对原文加以
调整和翻译,以使之符合中文的语言规范和出版规范。正文翻译主要包括词汇和句法两
个层面。其中词汇层面涉及到专业术语、复合词修饰语、新词、文化负载词等问题,采
用了中性词、上义词、意译等补偿手段。句法层面针对多枝共干句、圆周句等问题,通
过拆译、合并、增补、重复等补偿手段实现了简明准确的翻译效果。翻译图表时,遇到
了人名较多且部分人名缺乏既有译法、图表空间受限等问题。为便于读者查询参考文献,
笔者采取了不翻译人名的策略,并通过省略法解决了空间限制问题。另外,图表内容较
多,格式较复杂,为排版造成了一定的困难。实践中笔者利用各种软件工具对图表进行
了处理以提高翻译效率和准确性。
通过此次翻译实践,笔者对管理学领域的背景知识有了更深的了解,翻译能力也有
了一定的提升。希望本次翻译实践能够促进读者对利益相关者理论的了解,为相关领域
的研究提供参考。
关键词 信息型文本 管理学论文翻译 利益相关者理论 翻译方法
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河北大学硕士学位论文
Contents
Chapter 1 Task Description..................................................................................1
1.1 Task Source................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Task Contents..............................................................................................................1
1.3 Task Requirements......................................................................................................1
1.4 Task Significance........................................................................................................ 2
Chapter 2 Process Description.............................................................................4
2.1 Preparations.................................................................................................................4
2.2 Translating...................................................................................................................4
2.3 Proofreading................................................................................................................5
Chapter 3 Preparations Before Translation......................................................... 6
3.1 Source Text Analysis...................................................................................................6
3.2 Theoretical Preparations..............................................................................................6
3.3 Tool Preparations........................................................................................................ 8
Chapter 4 Cases Analysis...................................................................................11
4.1 Translations of the Titles........................................................................................... 11
4.1.1 Article Title and Section Titles........................................................................12
4.1.2 Table and Figure Titles....................................................................................14
4.2 Translation of the Body Text.....................................................................................16
4.2.1 Lexical Level...................................................................................................16
4.2.2 Syntactical Level.............................................................................................22
4.3 Translation of the Figures and Tables....................................................................... 27
4.3.1 Translations of Table and Figure Contents......................................................27
4.3.2 Formatting.......................................................................................................29
Chapter 5 Conclusion........................................................................................ 32
Bibliography......................................................................................................... 34
IV
Contents
Appendix I Original Text...................................................................................35
Appendix II Translation.....................................................................................65
Acknowledgements...............................................................................................96
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Chapter 1 Task Description
Chapter 1 Task Description
1.1 Task Source
In December of 2019, Mr. Fu Hongyan from the School of International Exchange and
Education of Hebei University planed to publish the compilation “Research on Non-Financial
Performance of Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility from Stakeholder Perspective”.
Through the introduction of Mr. Su Bo from the School of Foreign Languages, I participated
in the project and translated more than 20,000 words of foreign references from March to
May 2020. The translated texts were papers in the field of management. The part of the
literature on stakeholder identification was adopted. The original text chosen for this practice
report is Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle
of Who and What Really Counts.
1.2 Task Contents
The article was originally published on Academy of Management Review in 1997,
written by Ronald k. Mitchell, Bradley R. Agle, and Donna J. Wood. It mainly contains four
parts: a foreword reviewing the history of “stakeholder approach” and “stakeholder theory”,
an introduction to the recent development of stakeholder theory at that time, the criteria put
forward by the paper for stakeholder identification, and the research and management
implementation results of the dynamic theory of stakeholder identification. The project
mainly refers to the translation of the titles, the body parts, and the tables and figures.
1.3 Task Requirements
Academic style is a kind of practical style. The first principle of practical writing is
truthfulness. From a certain perspective, translation is also a kind of writing, so that the
requests of practical writing apply to the translation of practical writing as well (Li
Changshuan 2012). In addition, academic writing should be realistic and simple in style; the
data reference, numbers, figures and tables should be accurate; the language should be
accurate and logically rigorous; the sentences should be short and clear, without ambiguity.
Furthermore, during translation, translators should also pay attention to the cross-culture
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factors. Where there are culture-loaded words, supplemental measures as comment can be
used to flexibly deal with the problems.
According to the general characteristics of practical writing and translation and the
specific requests of this project, there are mainly four principles that must be obeyed.
Professionalism
The terms, sentence structures that are used in practical writing, especially when it comes
to academic writing, should be professional and be suitable to the language usage of the
corresponding field.
Logic
Although the academic style requests brevity and simplicity of the language, out of the
consideration for preciseness, there are also many long sentences in the original text. In order
to accurately convey the meaning of the original text and make the translation clear and easy
to understand, it is inevitable to break and restructure the sentences of the original text.
During this process, translators must pay attention to the logic of the translation text.
Linguistic Norms
According to the text typology theory, social science essay is a kind of informative text,
mainly expressing facts, information, knowledge and opinions. Its language is characterized
by strong logic, and the focus of the text is content rather than form, so the translation should
convey the same concepts and information as the original text in simple and clear vernacular.
Therefore, the language used in the translation should be normative, simple, and clear with
high readability.
Cross-cultural Factors
Nord(1997)states that the balance of function and effect is very delicate in cross-cultural
literary communication, since it is based on a number of risky suppositions. When there are
culture-loaded words in the original text that are difficult to translate, they should be handled
flexibly by compensating measures such as adding comments.
1.4 Task Significance
The purpose of this practice is to apply the translation knowledge I learned to complete
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Chapter 1 Task Description
this translation task and provide materials for the compilation.
Through summarizing, analyzing and discussing the problems that appeared in the
practice, I have improved my ability to analyze the text and accumulated experience for future
translations of social science texts, especially those related to management literature. The
translation of this project was adopted and applied to the compilation. The translation of this
literature is helpful to systematically summarize the development line and core concepts of
stakeholder theory and make a relatively systematic summary of stakeholder identification
typology. In addition, as a part of the compilation, the translation is helpful to the the
researchers’ understanding of the relation of stakeholders, corporate social responsibility
(CSR), and non-financial performance, and provides a reference for future study in related
fields.
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Chapter 2 Process Description
2.1 Preparations
It is always essential to do the preparation before translation. “Translation procedures
involve far more than step-by-step procedures for producing a translation from a source text.
There are a number of preliminary factors that must first be considered” (Nida, 1993).
Following are the preparations that I did for this project.
(1) Reading the original text.
(2) Marking out the words and sentences that are difficult to understand.
(3) Consulting referential materials.
(4) Studying the translation theories that are helpful.
(5) Preparing the dictionaries, searching tools, and software tools.
Since this chapter is the description of the project process, it is only the preparation
procedures that are listed here, and the details will be introduced in Chapter 3 Preparations.
2.2 Translating
First of all, I read and analyzed the original text to find out the key points and predicted
the potential difficulties. During reading the original text, I highlighted the items that were
hard to understand or of which the translations could not be determined judging from the text.
After getting an overview of the original text, I searched for the items from all kinds of
referential materials such as online corpus and databases, relevant scholarly monographs,
academic articles, and dictionaries. Even though I searched a lot of references, there were still
some items that I could hardly determine the translations. As for these items, I temporarily
adopted the most relevant or widely used translation, highlighted them in the original text, and
made comments. Hence I could quickly locate the undetermined items during reviewing and
get the information that I had collected.
After most of the reading problems were solved, I started to translate. The translation
process mainly contained three aspects: translating, reviewing, and rectifying. The whole
process of the translation was based on the principle of faithfulness and fluency. Wherever
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Chapter 2 Process Description
there were some problems I made comments for the convenience of reviewing and rectifying.
And once I determined to change or rectify something important, I would make records in a
log, recording the content I changed, the time of the changing, and the reason.
At last, I carefully checked the whole text and made sure that there were no more
undetermined items, and all the translation problems were solved reasonably. Then I started to
review.
2.3 Proofreading
The reviewing consists of two steps, self-reviewing and reviewing by the experienced
translator.
First I checked the consistency of the terms. Then I checked the grammar. After the basic
checks, I polished the language of the translated text. Since there are some tables and figures
in the text, at last I checked the contents and arrangement of them. Compared to the original
text, I checked the names and numbers that appeared in the text. Since this article quotes and
references quantity of other people’s articles, there are a lot of names in the text. Some of the
names are quite similar and some names appear many times through the whole text, so it is
necessary to make sure there is no confound. For the numbers in the text, mainly about time, I
checked the accuracy.
After self-reviewing, I submitted the translation. Then it was reviewed by experienced
translator and the teacher of related filed. They provided some valuable suggestions and
pointed out some defects of my translation. Then I analyzed the translation, identified the
mistakes and shortcomings, and did the revamp. At last I summarized the lesson learned and
made a term list for future reference.
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Chapter 3 Preparations Before Translation
3.1 Source Text Analysis
The first step of translation work should always be reading and understanding the
original text. After having read the whole text, I read papers and books in the relevant field to
figure out the problems I met. Meanwhile, I also consulted with my schoolmates and the
teachers from the College of Management. With all these efforts, I basically solved the
problems on understanding and got an overview of the original text. During this process, I
also made marks and comments in the original text for future reference of translation and
proofreading.
After that, I analyzed the original text and predicted the potential difficulties. Some
tables were complicated and the contents thereof were too much to manually sort and format.
Therefore software tools that could automatically extract and format the tables according to
the original text would be greatly helpful.
In addition, since I only had the PDF of the original text, which was not convenient for
the CAT tools to deal with, an editable document was needed for applying software tools.
3.2 Theoretical Preparations
To ensure that all problems are solved based on scientific theories and methods, I
referred to various translation theories, especially the text typology theory and skopostheory.
For this project, the application of text typology and spkopostheory is really helpful to
simplify the questions.
First of all, the text typology theory offered a macro guidance on the langue style. The
original text contains a lot of long sentences, and many of them have a very twisted sentence
structure that can be dealt with in different ways. It is really troublesome to determine
whether to maintain the language features or not. But according to the text typology,
scientific papers and articles are informational text of which the language should be of high
readability. Usually, it is possible to keep the readability while using complex sentences in
English, but not in Chinese. From the perspective of text typology, the Chinese translations
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Chapter 3 Preparations Before Translation
of such kind of texts should use plain language and short sentences, which will bring a lot of
convenience to this project. So I decided to take this theory as one of the guiding theories.
Secondly, the skopostheory provided practicable solutions to specific questions.
Although the text typology theory offered a macro guidance, sometimes I was still in a
dilemma when there might be multiple ways to translate a word or a sentence. Hence I still
needed a more operational theory. For example, “stakeholder” has two equivalent
translations in Chinese. One is “干系人” and the other one is “利益相关者”. From the
perspective of the skopostheory, it is easy to make the decision. One of the main purposes of
the translation project is to spread knowledge. So that I chose the one that had been more
widely adopted in this field. According to the search results from www.cnki,.net, “利益相关
者” was more frequently used, therefore I adopted it.
The text typology theory allows me to translate flexibly, and the skopostheory
contributes a lot when many conditions require further considerations. Therefore I decided to
carry out the project under these two theories.
Following are the theoretical ideas that are of great guidance and inspiration to this
practice.
The text typology helped with making translation strategy. This theory is the basic
theory of the translation criticism and assessment model proposed by Reiss in the early
1970s. Its theoretical basis is German psychologist and functional linguist Karl Bühler’s
triadic approach to language functions. According to Bühler’s instrumental model of
language function, Reiss classified texts into three main types, namely informative type,
expressive type and operative type. According to Reiss, informative texts mainly express
facts, information, knowledge, opinions, and so on. The language used in an informative text
is usually with strong logic, and the content focuses more on content rather than form (Zhang
Meifang, 2013). Obviously, the original text belongs to informative text. For informative
texts, Reiss recommends using “plain vernacular language”.
The other theory that is of great importance to this project is the skopostheory. This
theory is guided by human behavior theories. The theorists of skopostheory believe that
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河北大学硕士学位论文
translation is an intercultural human communication activity with a clear purpose and
intention.
There are three principles in the theory: the skopos principle, coherence principle, and
the fidelity principle, and the primary principle is skopos. The skopos principle means that
the translation should work in the way that the recipients of the translation expect it to work
in the context and culture of the translated language. The principle of fidelity means that
there should be interlingual coherence between the original text and the translated text, and
the degree and form of fidelity depend on the skopos of the translated text and the
translator’s understanding. If the skopos of translation requires changing the function of the
original text, the criterion of translation is no longer the interlingual coherence with the
original text but the appropriateness or conformity with the skopos of translation. If the
purpose of translation requires interlingual incoherence, the rule of interlingual coherence is
no longer valid. While the purposes and functions of translations are different, the translation
methods and strategies vary accordingly. Regardless of the methods, the most fundamental
principle of translation is whether the purpose of a translation project can be effectively
achieved (Jia Wenbo,2002).
The skopostheory has a broadly pragmatic approach, which focuses on the
characteristics of text types. It helps to increase a translator’s focus on communicative
functions and also contributes to their efficiency.
3.3 Tool Preparations
Nowadays, the tools used by translators are a vital factor that affects efficiency, and all
translators should select suitable tools according to the features of the specific translation
project, so that they can tremendously improve their translation efficiency and quality. Based
on the analysis mentioned above, the tool preparation for this project mainly consists of three
aspects: dictionaries, searching tools and software tools.
Dictionaries are essential tools of translation. For this project I prepared not only
traditional paper and digital dictionaries, but also some online dictionaries in case that there
are some new words that are not contained by the traditional ones.
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Chapter 3 Preparations Before Translation
The paper and digital dictionaries include Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (8th
edition), LONGMAN Dictionary of Contemporary English(Eng-Chi)(5th edition), The
English-Chinese Dictionary(2nd edition). Since Social Science literature sometimes refers to
law and there may be some legal terms, I also prepared the English-Chinese Dictionary of
Anglo-American Law.
The online dictionaries include www.dictionary.cambridge.org,
www.collinsdictionary.com, and www.merriam-webster.com.
Searching Tools:
Since domestic research on stakeholder theory is not yet abundant, there are some terms
without fixed translation. Some of them have more than one practical translations that need
me to make choices by my own judgement. To deal with such kinds of problems, I first
collected authoritative and professional bilingual corpus and Chinese monolingual materials,
such as some English academic books in related fields and their translations and related
papers. I also collected some online corpus resources and references, such as “linguee corpus”
and the www.wiki.mbalib.com, to check relevant concepts and select reasonable translations
from them.
Software Tools:
The main software tools used in this project are Transmate and WPS. Based on the
pre-translation analysis, I decided to use Transmate, a free lightweight C AT tool, to deal with
the whole project. However, it is a tough task for C AT tools to deal with complex tables and
figures in a PDF document, which is usually uneditable so that translators must do some
pre-editings to make sure the C AT tools can handle the document.
The pre-editings basically consist of two steps: the transformation from the PDF
document to the editable document and the restructuring of the transformed document. For
transformation, I used WPS to transform the document from PDF format to “.docx” format,
for its OCR function was very efficient. For the re-structuring, I firstly deleted the redundant
content as page headers and footers, then I checked and adjusted the tables and figures of the
transformed document to make sure they could be input into the C AT tool. After that, I used
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河北大学硕士学位论文
the “pretranslation” function of Transmate, with the API applied from Baidu translation, and
output a file of machine translation to check the formation. Then I found that Table 1 could
not be transformed correctly due to the weakness of OCR. So I manually abstracted the
content of Table 1 and made a new table in the transformed document. Finally, the C AT tool
could be applied through the above measures.
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
This chapter discusses the problems encountered during translation and the solutions
thereof. The cases are categorized into three aspects: the translation of the titles, the
translation of the body text, and the translation of the tables and figures. The problems are
mainly solved according to the skopostheory, and various methods and tools are used in
practice.
4.1 Translations of the Titles
As for translation of academic articles, the translation of the tile has long been a
significant topic. At present, most of domestic studies are about translation from Chinese to
English, so there are not many references for this project. However, translation is also a kind
of writing, so the translation of titles also possesses the features of academic writing in
Chinese. Therefore I searched for relevant studies on www.cnki.net and made a brief
summary.
Titles can be classified as book titles, journal titles, newspaper titles, article titles, figure
titles, table titles, etc. The title of a journal article generally includes two kinds of titles: the
title of the whole text and the in-text titles. According to the structure, the tiles can also be
classified into three types: nominal titles, compound titles (Zhang Jiyu, 1994), and full
sentence titles (Kumar MJ,2013).
Regarding the role of the title, Yan Desheng (1997) proposes that the title generally has
two functions, one is to tell the reader the content of the article, and the other is to point out
the theme of the article. In addition, the title can be used as the main basis for cataloging,
indexing and searching in the data sorting work (Zhang Jiyu, 1994). In additional, acting as a
leading role, “the the titles of journal articles should be informative” (Hartley J,2005).
In this project, the original text has various kinds of titles. Following are some cases of
title translation. To be clear and logical, I will discuss the cases according to the positions of
the titles.
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4.1.1 Article Title and Section Titles
Article title
Case 1:
Source text: Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the
principle of who and what really counts
Original translation: 关于一种利益相关者识别与优先性的理论:为“谁和什么是真
正重要的”确定原则
Target translation: 利益相关者的识别与优先性:类型与关键属性
From the perspective of skopostheory, the development of translation strategies should
follow the purpose of translation. This paper is an informative text, and the goal of the
translation task is to introduce foreign research results. Therefore the translation of the title
should, firstly, ensure accurate information transmission, and secondly, have high readability.
Following is the analysis process of this case.
In terms of information, the key information in the title is fourfold: the study objects of
this paper are (1) the “identification” and (2) “salience” of stakeholders and (3) the paper
defines “who” is a stakeholder and (4) “what” is a stake. The two topics in the latter part of
the compound title correspond to the two previous research objects. Defining the principle of
“who really counts” solves the problem of stakeholder identification, while defining it of
“what really counts” identifies the attributes required to be a stakeholder, and the number of
attributes acquired is the key to solving the problem of “salience”.
As proceeding discussion, a title of an article should have two main functions, one is to
point out the main idea and the other is to summarize the content. The original text is a
compound title with two parts, the former specifying the objects of the study, and the latter
complementing and explaining the former, pointing out the specific content of the paper,
which exactly fulfills the two main functions of the title of the article, so I have kept this
compound structure in the translation.
The original translation follows the original text in terms of form and content, but there
are two shortcomings in this translation. First, as a social science article, the title of the article
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
needs to be highly summarized, but the original translation is tediously lengthy. Second, the
original translation is not clear enough. The author wrote the article to publish his research
results, and the target readers of the original article are researchers who know much about this
field, although the title of the paper is written implicitly, it will not interrupt the readers’
understanding. In contrast, stakeholder research in China started very late and there are only a
few researchers at the present, some of whom do not have sufficient background knowledge,
so the title is too subtle and may affect their understanding. The purpose of this translation
project is to introduce foreign research results to China, so the expression should be as clear
and easy to understand as possible. Therefore, I translated the latter part of the title clearly
with two noun phrases according to the original text.
Section Titles
Case 2:
Source text: Stakeholder Theory-State of the Art
Original translation: 利益相关者理论—最新进展
Target translation: 利益相关者理论—研究进展
Nord (1997) points out that communicative interactions take place in situations that are
limited in time and space. When senders and receivers belong to different cultures, the
situations can be so different that they need an intermediary who enables them to
communicate across time and space.
In this section, the original article addresses the most significant controversies and results
of stakeholder theory at the time, taking as its thread the discussions among scholars on two
central issues of stakeholder theory. “State of the art” is explained in the online dictionary
www.dictionary.cambridge.org as “very modern and using the most recent ideas and methods”
which, by definition, seems to be more appropriately translated as “最新进展”. However,
more than twenty years have passed since the publication of the translated paper, and some of
its ideas, although still quite influential, can hardly be called the most recent achievements.
Nord(1997) has pointed out that the target text should be received as being literary within the
context of the target literature. In some cases there is more than one source-text situation
because the text has performed various functions at different times in history”. So here,
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河北大学硕士学位论文
considering its historical limitations, it is translated as “研究进展”.
Case 3:
Source text: Research and management consequences of a dynamic theory of
stakeholder identification.
Original translation: 利益相关者识别动态理论的研究成果与管理实施成果
Target translation: 动态利益相关者识别理论的研究成果与管理实施成果
This is the title of the third section of the original text. The difficulty here is how to
translate “dynamic”. The position of the translation of “dynamic”, “ 动 态 ” , can bring
vagueness in Chinese, due to the Chinese grammar characteristic. If the word “ 动 态 ” is
placed before “理论”, it is not intuitive enough and does not clearly reflect the content of the
article from the title. Placing the word “动态” at the beginning of the sentence, on the other
hand, can more clearly convey the intention of the original text.
As the context suggests, the dynamic theory here is compared to the traditional static
theory. The core difference is that traditional theories attempt to give a static, normative
definition of which groups or individuals are stakeholders, and the disadvantage of such static
theories is that they can only identify “stakeholders” and “non-stakeholders”, and cannot
prioritize stakeholders, which is the core problem that this article tries to solve. This dynamic
theory states that changes in the acquisition and loss of the three attributes determine that the
identity of the stakeholders is dynamic and their priority can change, thus the identification
process is also dynamic. The latter translation method reflects this dynamism and is therefore
the better choice. It also better fulfills the task of “conveying information” and is in line with
the rules of skopostheory.
4.1.2 Table and Figure Titles
Case 4:
Source text: Who Is a Stakeholder? A Chronology
Target translation: 利益相关者定义发展年表
This is the title of table 1 in the original text. It is a compound title in the form of a
rhetorical question that can inspire the exploring desire of the reader and make the academic
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
discussion more interesting. For the consideration of the fidelity, it is worthy to keep the
original form. According to the skopostheory, to render a maximally faithful imitation of the
source text is a kind of intertextual coherence; to ensure the translation make sense in the
communicative situation and culture in which it is received belongs to intratextual coherence.
“Intertextual coherence is considered subordinate to intratextual coherence, and both are
subordinate to the skopos rule”(Nord, 1997). Considering that the translation will eventually
be a part of a scholarly work, its interest is less important than its preciseness, and the
translation must be consistent with the language style of the whole book. In order to maintain
intratextual coherence as much as possible, I decided to translate the title in declarative form
after discussion with the client.
Case 5:
Source text: Stakeholder Typology: One, Two, or Three Attributes Present
Target translation: 利益相关者分类:不同属性的组合
Figure 1: “Figure 2” of the original text
Nord(1997)states that the source text is no longer the first and foremost criterion for the
translator’s decisions. It is just one of the various sources of information used by the translator.
In translation, the chosen informational items are then transferred to the target culture using
the presentation the translator believes appropriate for the given purpose.
This is the title of “Figure 2” in the original text, a Venn diagram. Venn Diagram is an
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河北大学硕士学位论文
effective tool in comparing similarities and differences in conceptual meaning between topics.
The Venn diagram allows for the marking and identification of features and meanings shared
between themes(Qiu Ting , 2006). Through this Venn diagram, the authors show the
differences and connections between stakeholder types with different quantities of key
attributes. If literally translated as “利益相关者分类:出现一种、两种或三种属性”, it is very
awkward and unclear in Chinese, while translating it as “利益相关者分类:不同属性的组合”
highlights the “contrast” and “connection”. It is in line with the function of “conveying
information” of informative texts and the target of this project.
4.2 Translation of the Body Text
The translation of the body text refers to two aspects: the lexical level and the syntactical
level. At the lexical level, some of the words have more than one practicable solutions while
some others may be of untranslatability that challenges the fidelity. At the syntactical level,
the original text uses a lot of long sentences that will hurt the readability if translated literally
according to the original structures. These problems can be resolved logically and properly
under the guidance of skopostheory. Following is the analysis of the specific cases.
4.2.1 Lexical Level
Vocabulary is the most basic level of translation. To ensure the accuracy of the translation,
the vocabulary translation must be correct and applicable to the corresponding context. In the
translation of this document, the key points at the lexical level are the following.
Technical Terms
Since the translated literature is a relatively new research result in this field, some
academic terms do not have authoritative translations or generally accepted translations in
China. These words need to be dealt with flexibly according to the context, background
knowledge and translation strategies.
Case 6:
Source text: A theory of stakeholder identification must accommodate these differences.
Target translation: 利益相关者识别理论必须能够容纳这些差异。
In the early management works, the translation of the word stakeholder is mostly “干系
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
人”, and this translation is still used in some management works today. However, it is mostly
translated as “ 利 益 相 关 者” in domestic academic articles. In terms of meaning, the two
translations are equivalent and the translation “干系人” is adopted by authoritative literature
in management. For example, the Chinese version of Project Management Body of
Knowledge Guide (Project Management Institute, 2018) adopts this translation. In my
translation process, it was difficult to make trade-offs in the translation of this term.
Considering that the purpose of the client’s book is to introduce foreign research results and
publish his own latest research results, I decided to take the breadth of acceptance of the
translation and the client’s language habits as the criteria for selection. As of February 2021,
only 103 results can be found by searching for the title that contains “干系人” on CNKI,
while 6,701 results can be found for “利益相关者”. On the other hand, the client has used the
term “利益相关者” in his previous research papers. Considering the above, I decided to use
the translation “利益相关者”.
Case 7:
Source text: Some additional approaches are relationship based, built on acknowledged
transactional conditions, such as the existence of a legal or implied contract, an exchange
relationship, or an identifiable power-dependence relationship.
Original translation:除上述标准外,一些方法是以关系为基础的,建立在公认的交
易条件上,如存在法律合同或隐含的合同、交换关系或可识别的权力——依赖关系。
Target translation:除上述标准外,一些方法是以关系为基础的,建立在公认的交
易条件上,如存在法律合同或默示合同、交换关系或可识别的权力——依赖关系。
It is important to be especially careful when legal-related content appears in an article and
never to make arbitrary assumptions. Many legal terms are not special in terms of linguistic
form. For example, in this case, “implied contract” involves two words that are very common,
yet they form a relatively rare legal term. During proofreading, I found that the original
translation was unclear, so I suspected that I had misunderstood it and decided to check the
words involved. However, there is no explanation about “implied contract” in either the
“implied” or “contract” entry in ordinary dictionaries. Considering the word phrase is related
17
河北大学硕士学位论文
to law, I tried to find the relevant entries in the English-Chinese Dictionary of
Anglo-American Law. Finally, I found that the proper translation of “implied contract” is “默
示合同”.
Compound Modifiers
Compound modifiers are widely used in English academic writing because of their
flexible collocation and their ability to summarize or describe abstract concepts. However,
due to the differences between Chinese and English, it is often difficult to complete the
conversion of compound modifiers in a concise way, which sometimes brings troubles to
translators. It is important to translate the compound modifiers concisely and clearly, so that
the readers can accurately understand the meaning the original text expressing.
Case 8:
Source text: Whereas one-attribute low-salience stakeholders are anticipated to have a
latent relationship with managers, two-attribute moderate-salience stakeholders are seen as
“expecting something,” because the combination of two attributes leads the stakeholder to an
active versus a passive stance, with a corresponding increase in firm responsiveness to the
stakeholder's interests.
Target translation: 人们预期具有一种属性的低优先性利益相关者与管理者之间存
在一种潜在的关系,而具有两种属性的中度优先性利益相关者则被认为“期待着某些事
情发生”。两种属性的结合会导致利益相关者变得更为主动,不再处于被动的立场。相
应地,公司对这类利益相关者的利益也会提高敏感度。
Compared with Chinese, English has a more flexible morphology, and can easily form
compound modifiers by freely combining adjectives, nouns, verbs, participles and other
elements, which can make the lines more concise and fluent. However, in the process of
English-Chinese translation, this advantage becomes a disadvantage. If it is directly translated
according to the original form as “一属性低优先性利益相关者” and “双属性中优先性利益
相关者”, the translation will be stiff and awkward. If the compound modifiers are expanded
one by one and connected by the word “的”, the translation will be “具有一种属性的低优先
性的利益相关者”, which will make the sentence lengthy, especially since the original text is
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
a long sentence itself. Such a lengthy structure will lead to a lower readability of the
translation. In English, it is more frequently to use phrases to create concise sentences. But in
Chinese, translators could consider to translate the phrases into short sentences(Zhang Shimin,
2015). On the other hand, Yu Guangzhong (2014) has criticized the translation style of
abusing the word “ 的”. To avoid the above problems, I decided to handle this compound
modifier flexibly by converting part of it into a phrase and the other part into a noun modifier
and deleting the redundant word “的”.
Neologisms
There are some words in the original text that their exact counterparts cannot be found in
the target language, and reasonable trade-offs or compensations need to be made by
combining the respective cultural connotations and social backgrounds.
Case 9:
Source text: Who is a stakeholder and what is a stake?
Target translation: 利益相关者及相关利益的定义
At the present, there is no explanation in the dictionaries that perfectly explains the
concept signified by the word “stake” in this article.
Two of the definitions under the entry “stake” are relevant. One is “an important part or
share in a business, plan, etc. that is important to you and that you want to be successful”, “重
大利益,重大利害关系” in Chinese, which is in line with the broad definition of “stakeholder”
proposed by Freeman(1984). The other is “something that you risk losing, especially money,
when you try to predict the result of a race, game, etc., or when you are involved in an activity
that can succeed or fail”, “赌注” in Chinese, which is in line with the narrow definition of
“stakeholder” proposed by Clarkson(1994). The author of the original text takes the middle
ground, thus the meaning of “stake” should be more general. However, there is no appropriate
translation in the dictionaries yet. For such kind of words, translators can use neutral or less
expressive words to translate. Finally, I translated the term as a neutral word phrase “相关利
益”.
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河北大学硕士学位论文
Case 10:
Source text: This analysis allows and justifies identification of entities that should be
considered stakeholders of the firm, and it also constitutes the set from which managers select
those entities they perceive as salient. According to this model, then, entities with no power,
legitimacy, or urgency in relation to the firm are not stakeholders and will be perceived as
having no salience by the firm’s managers.
Target translation: 通过这种分析,可以确定应被视为公司利益相关者的各种实体,
并证明了其合理性。而这些实体也构成了一个集合,管理者从中选出他们认为具有优先
性的实体。那么,根据这一模式,与公司没有权力关系、合法性关系或紧迫性关系的实
体不是利益相关者,将被公司的管理者认为不具有优先性。
The question here is how to translate “salience”. In the English-Chinese dictionary,
salience is interpreted as “显著,突出”. In LONGMAN dictionary, the explanations of salient
are “重要的,显著的,突出的”, so that “salience” could also be translated as “重要性”.
However, none of these translations fits enough the meaning here. Taking the context into
consideration, I decided to translate it as “优先性”.
On the one hand, in the original text, the author proposes a typology for identifying
stakeholders. In this typology, there are seven types of stakeholders and different stakeholder
has different salience to the managers. And the definition of salience in this article is “the
degree to which managers give priority to competing stakeholder claims”. Thus, “salience”
should be a nature of prioritization. From this perspective, the use of the word “优先性”
better reflects this idea.
On the other hand, if “salience” was translated as “重要性”, it should have been the
synonym of “importance”. Then why does the author use “salience” other than “importance”
(which is more commonly used) here? Because having a low salience does not mean the
stakeholder is less important than the others to the managers. It only indicates that the
managers do not need to give immediate attention to them.
Prioritization of stakeholders is also a topic that has received much attention in related
fields. For example, Wang Runjia (2015) explores some similar issues in his paper “On the
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
prioritization of various stakeholders(论诸利益相关者的优先性排序)” which also refers to
the article translated here. The two papers are highly related in terms of topics. This also
confirms the reasonableness of the translation of “优先性” from a certain perspective.
Culture-loaded Words
In the translation of social scientific texts, culture-loaded words sometimes bring troubles
to translators. In different languages and cultures, even the same meaning may have very
different forms of expression due to differences in geography, history, and other cultural
contexts. Some words have meanings that are unique to a particular language and culture, and
their textual carriers are also unique, but there are gaps in another cultural context (Chen
Xirong, 1998). Under the guidance of skopostheory, the culture-loaded words can be
translated flexibly and properly.
Case 11:
Source text: Other examples of stakeholders using coercive tactics include
environmentalists spiking trees in areas to be logged and religious or political terrorists using
bombings, shootings, or kidnappings to call attention to their claims.
Target translation: 利益相关者使用强制手段的其他例子还包括环保主义者在要砍
伐的地区蓄意扰乱砍伐活动,宗教或政治恐怖分子使用爆炸、枪击或绑架等方式来引起
人们对其主张的注意。
“A target text is an offer of information formulated by a translator in a target culture and
language about an offer of information formulated by someone else in the source culture and
language” (Reiss & Vermeer, 1984, cited in Nord, 1997). Based on this opinion, sometimes
free translation can be an effective way to solve the problems in translation.
Tree spiking involves hammering a metal rod, nail or other material into a tree trunk to
sabotage logging. There is no counterpart of this word phrase in Chinese. If it is literally
translated as “钉树活动”, it will make no sense and the Chinese reader will not know the
actual meaning. So it is essential to make some adaptions. In literary translation, translators
usually use footnotes to make up the lacking information when the original form of a word is
needed to be kept. But according to the skopostheory, in this project, the original form was not
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河北大学硕士学位论文
that important. “Providing information” was the most important function of the original text.
Therefore, I just needed to abstract the meaning, and the form could be abandoned.
4.2.2 Syntactical Level
Although the language in practical writing should be succinct, which usually requests to
short sentences in Chinese, it is the need for preciseness that more often takes higher priority
in English practical articles, which brings more complexity to the sentence structure.
Therefore, translators must carefully analyze the original text and take flexible strategies to
break down and restructure sentences during translating. In this project, there are basically
three kinds of sentence structures that needs attention, namely, attributive clauses, conjugated
sentences and periodic sentences.
Attributive Clauses
Academic literature is linguistically rigorous and informative, especially in the field of
management. In this translation project, long sentences with complex structures are
commonly used in the original text, which may contain multiple definite clauses with
complex logic. In the process of translating such sentences, it is often not possible to translate
them directly according to the original sentence structure, and it is necessary to split the
sentences and adjust the order. Accurate understanding of the original text, reasonable
splitting of the sentences and accurate translation of the information and logic of the original
text are the main issues in the translation process.
Case 12:
Source text: Knowing what types of stakeholders actually exist, which our identification
typology facilitates, and why managers respond to them the way they do, which our notion of
salience clarifies, sets the stage for future work in stakeholder theory that specifies how and
under what circumstances managers can and should respond to various stakeholder types.
Original translation: 了解实际存在的利益相关者类型,我们的识别类型学有助于此,
以及管理者为什么对他们做出反应,我们的优先性概念阐明了这一点,为利益相关者理
论的未来工作奠定了基础,这将指明管理者如何以及在什么情况下可以并应该对各种利
益相关者作出回应。
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
Target translation: 我们的识别类型学能够促进人们了解实际存在哪些类型的利益
相关者,而我们的优先性概念也阐明了管理者为何以这样的方式回应他们。对这两者的
认识将为以后的利益相关者理论工作奠定基础,进而明确管理者以何种方式、在何种条
件下,可以回应以及如何回应各种不同类型的利益相关者。
There are three clauses in this case, the first two are non-finite clauses, and the last one is
a finite clause. The main stem of the sentence is “Knowing what types of stakeholders
actually exist and why managers respond to them the way they do sets the stage for future
work in stakeholder theory”. It is difficult to separate the three clauses into separate sentences
because they are closely related to the constituents they modify. If translated in the original
way, the whole sentence would be very complicated, which is not in line with the Chinese
language habits of using short sentences and is not conducive to the readers’ understanding. I
added the object to the first two clauses and advanced them, and then used a pronoun to
compress the original main stem into “对这两者的认识” as the subject of the latter sentence,
which solved the problem of lengthy sentences caused by non-restrictive definite clauses. The
third clause is translated into a clause of a compound sentence by using a conjunction “进而”.
By splitting, supplementing and merging, I translated this long sentence into several short
sentences that conform to Chinese language habits and are easy for readers to understand.
Conjugated Sentences
There is a linguistic structure in English sentences that is often misunderstood, especially
when it is translated into Chinese, all due to the misunderstanding of the modifiers. This
English language phenomenon, which Zhu Guangqian calls “multiple branches with a
common stem” (Yang Shizhuo,2011), is also called conjugated sentence. Since the modifiers
can be placed after the modified word in English, sometimes several modified words share the
same modifier to form a conjugated sentence, which is also commonly seen in social science
articles. In this translation practice, I also found some conjugated sentences which are difficult
to determine the modifying relationship according to their grammatical structures, so I need to
combine the background knowledge and contextual logic to deduce the meaning of the
original text and translate it.
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河北大学硕士学位论文
Case 13:
Source text: Discretionary stakeholders are a particularly interesting group for scholars
of corporate social responsibility and performance.
Original translation: 对于研究企业社会责任与绩效的学者来说,裁量型利益相关者
是一个特别有趣的群体。
Target translation: 对于研究企业社会责任和企业社会绩效的学者来说,裁量型利
益相关者是一个特别有趣的群体。
This sentence can be interpreted in two different ways due to different understandings of
the grammatical structure of the original text. The key point is whether “corporate social”
modifies both “responsibility” and “performance” or only modifies “responsibility”. To figure
out this question, it is essential to consult the referential materials. Searching on www.cnki.net,
I found that corporate social performance is also a popular topic in the field of management.
Therefore the sentence should not be simply translated as “对于研究企业社会责任与绩效的
学 者 来 说 ”, which also brings ambiguity. And the proper way is to separately translate
“corporate social responsibility and performance” as “企业社会责任和企业社会绩效”.
Case 14:
Source text: A few scholars narrow the field of relevant groups in terms of their moral
claims, arguing that the essence of stakeholder management should be the firm’s participation
in creating and sustaining moral relationships, or the firm’s fulfilling its affirmative duty to
stakeholders in terms of fairly distributing the harms and benefits of the firm’s actions.
Original translation:少数学者从道德诉求的角度缩小了相关群体的范围,认为利益
相关者管理的实质应该是企业参与创造和维持道德关系,或者说企业履行对利益相关者
的积极作为义务,公平地分担损害和分配企业行为带来的利益。
Target translation:少数学者从道德诉求的角度缩小了相关群体的范围,认为利益
相关者管理的实质应该是企业参与创造和维持道德关系,或者说企业履行对利益相关者
的积极作为义务,公平地分摊企业行为造成的损害,同样也要公平地分配企业行为产生
的利益。
Yang Shizhuo(2011) points out that English tends to omit, while Chinese is used to repeat,
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
which is an important difference in the structure of the two languages. There are two points to
note when translating this structure: one is word order; the other is repetition. In this case, “of
the firm’s actions” modifies both the harms and benefits. It is not difficult to figure out the
logic of the sentence but hard to find a counterpart word in Chinese for “distribute” that can
collocate with both harm (“ 损 害 ”in Chinese) and benefit (“ 利 益 ”). Therefore I used a
repetition to eliminate the vagueness and two different verbs to collocate with the phrases to
make the sentence fluent.
Periodic Sentences
English social science literature sometimes uses periodic sentences to describe
phenomena or summarize ideas. Such sentences often cannot maintain their original sentence
structure in English when translated into Chinese. In the translation process, it is necessary to
correctly analyze the grammatical structure, clarify the modifying relationships and adjust the
sentence structure according to the Chinese language characteristics to make the translation
clear and fluent.
Compared to loose sentences, in which important information appears first, in periodic
sentences, the anticipatory constituents appear first and the major constituents are presented
later, making the sentence structure stretchable. It is beneficial to enhance the rhetorical effect
or to supplement information. Sun Shengmao (1994) points out that for the functional style,
the use of periodic sentence structures can highly condense the information to be conveyed
and thus reduce the length of the sentence. It can highlight key points and supplement
background information. Periodic sentences are frequently used in the original text. When
reading and understanding the periodic sentences, it is important to remember the information
conveyed by all the additional information provided by the anticipatory constituents, and to
pay attention to the latter part of the sentence that summaries or emphasizes the main idea.
Case 15:
Source text: It is important for us to note that we, along with other responsible
individuals, are very uncomfortable with the notion that those whose actions are dangerous,
both to stakeholder-manager relationships as well as to life and well-being, might be accorded
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河北大学硕士学位论文
some measure of legitimacy by virtue of the typology proposed in this analysis.
Target translation: 有种观点认为,某些人的行为会给利益相关者与管理者的关系、
人们的生命和福祉带来危险,而本分析报告中提出的类型学会让这类人获得一定的合法
性。必须指出,同其他有责任感的人一样,我们非常不赞同这种观点。
This is a periodic sentence. In the original text, the author tries to emphasize two
messages, and the first is the author’s attitude and the second is the point of view that the
author opposes. In English, the use of the periodic sentence can combine the two closely, so
that the message and emotion can be conveyed in one sentence without being awkward.
However, due to the grammatical and linguistic characteristics of Chinese, adopting the
language form of the original text would make the translation tediously long, which would
neither express the emotion nor help the reader understand the viewpoint the author opposes.
Therefore, it is necessary to break down and reorganize the sentence, separating the parts that
convey information and those that express emotion, to reasonably convey the message
intended by the original.
Case 16:
Source text: The idea that the organization is an environmentally dependent coalition of
divergent interests, which depends upon gaining the attention of (making claims upon)
managers at the center of the nexus to effect reconciliations among stakeholders, suggests that
the perspective of managers might be vital.
Target translation: 有种观点表明,管理者的权衡能力可能至关重要。这种观点认
为组织是一个由不同利益集团组成的结合体,依靠(通过提出诉求的方式)获取位于关
系中心的管理者的注意来协调各种利益相关者。
In the original text, the sentence is located at the beginning of the paragraph. In both
English and Chinese, the sentence at the beginning of a paragraph usually serves to point out
the main idea to lead the following. The original text conveys a point of view and the
conclusion derived from it to the reader with a periodic sentence. The main part of the
sentence is “The idea suggests that the perspective of managers might be vital”, which is also
the key information. In English, this sentence can play its leading role, but if it is translated
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
into Chinese in the original order, the key information will be delayed and its summarizing
and emphasizing function will be weakened, which is not in line with the writing norms.
Therefore, I adjusted the order to make the main components appear earlier and form an
individual sentence, so as the first sentence of the paragraph can still plays its leading role in
the translated text.
4.3 Translation of the Figures and Tables
Compared with the translation of the main part of the article, chart translation has its
particularity. First of all, space and sentence patterns are limited. The purpose of using tables
is to visualize data or content to clearly reflect certain rules or logic, which requires its content
and format to be as concise and clear as possible. In addition, each chart is highly functional.
In the original text, “Table 1” is a chronology, whose function is to enumerate the
development and changes of the definition of stakeholders with time as a clue, and “Figure 2
shows the different types of stakeholders produced by different combinations of attributes
through three overlapping circles. These tables and figures materialize the abstract concepts
and make the article more logical and readable. These functions must be taken into
consideration in the process of translation.
In addition, formatting is also a point that must be considered in specific translation
projects(Nord, 1997), especially when the table contains a lot of content or the format is very
complex. One of the difficult points in this translation project is the formatting of the tables.
Among the tables and figures of the original text, “Table 1” has a complex format, and “Table
2” and “Table 3” contain many entries, which are troublesome to the formatting. I used the
OCR tool provided by WPS and the C AT tool “Transmate” to solve these problems.
4.3.1 Translations of Table and Figure Contents
There are three tables and two figures in the original text, wherein “Table 1” describes the
development of the definition of stakeholders; “Table 2” sorts out the rationales for stakeholder
identification; and “Table 3” lists the key constructs of stakeholder identification and prioritization
theory; “Figure 1” shows the three key attributes in this stakeholder typology; “Figure 2” shows
the seven groups of stakeholders formed by different combinations of these three attributes.
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河北大学硕士学位论文
Selected parts of the figures of original text are analyzed below.
Case 17:
Table 4-1 Part of the translated “Table 1” of the original text
Source Stake
“are depending on the firm in order to achieve
their personal goals and on Rhenman, 1964
whom the firm is depending for its existence”
(cited in Nasi, 1995)
Evan & Freeman, 1988: 75-76 “have a stake in or claim on the firm”
来源 相关利益
为了实现其个人目标而依赖于企业,或者企 Rhenman, 1964
业依赖其存在(cited in Nasi,1995)
利益相关者“与公司具有利益关系或 Evan & Freeman, 1988: 75-76
对公司有诉求”
The two cases are selected from “Table 1” of the original text. The table contains two
columns, each with a header, listing the source of the definition (researcher, time) and the “stake”
on which the stakeholder is defined. Many of the sentences in the table are incomplete, and most
lack a subject. The title of the table contains a question “who is a stakeholder?”, and most of these
incomplete sentences have the implied subject “stakeholder”. To avoid obscure translations, it is
essential to deal with the subject flexibly. I solved this problem by adding the subject “利益相关
者” or pronouns.
Another question, which is also addressed under the guidance of skopos principle, is whether
or not the names in the tables need to be translated. Academic literature often contains a large
number of references to papers and writings of other authors, which is rather troublesome in the
translation process. First of all, the translation of personal names itself is a complicated task. Some
names already have widely accepted translations, translators need to firstly check the existed
translations, not just to translate them phonetically. The second problem is that translating names
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
can cause problems in marking citations. I did not find authoritative references on the question of
whether the names in the literature need to be translated. After comparing some management
translations, I found that there is no uniform solution. Therefore, I decided to solve this problem
by myself according to the principles of skopostheory.
On the one hand, the intention of the author of the original text should be taken into account.
The author of the original text made a lot of references firstly for theoretical analysis, and
secondly for the requirements of academic writing specifications, without considering the impact
on the translation process. On the other hand, it is also necessary to consider the client's purpose.
The client chose this paper for the purpose of theoretical review, so that readers can learn about
the development process of the theory. In addition, considering that the function of an informative
text is to convey information, the readers’ feelings should not be ignored. It is likely that the
reader will need to look up the references at the end of the text for further reading through the
marked citations, so the need for ease of reference should be taken into account. Another point is
that this paper will be used in the client’s compilation, for which typesetting is a very tedious and
complicated step, and translating the names will undoubtedly increase the workload of typesetting.
Finally, considering that there is a deadline, it will not be efficient to translate the names.
Therefore I decided not to translate them and leave more time for proofreading and review to
improve the overall quality of the translation.
Taking the above considerations into account, I decided not to translate the names in the table
so as those that appear in the other part of the original text.
4.3.2 Formatting
The presence of tables and figures containing large amounts of content in the original text
often causes problems for translators. There are two main problems. The first one is the limited
space. Translators must consider whether the table space can accommodate the translated text or
not. The second is the difficulty of formatting, which can be time-consuming when the tables and
figures have a lot of content or are with complex formatting.
Case 18:
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河北大学硕士学位论文
Figure 4-1 Part of “Table 2” of the original text
There are three tables in the original text, including one single-column table and two
multi-column tables. To reduce the formatting workload, I first used WPS to convert PDF
documents to “.docx” format, a format that can be edited in WPS or WORD software, which
is also a convenient format for C AT tools. Then I did a pre-editing of the converted document.
The content other than tables was removed. I applied for the Baidu translation API and used
Transmate’s machine translation function to pre-translate and exported the file to check
whether the formatting problems were properly solved before the formal translation.
Figure 4-2 Part of “Table 2” of the original text after pre-translation
After testing, I found that “Table 2” and “Table 3” of the original text were correctly
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Chapter 4 Cases Analysis
handled, while the converting of “Table 1” had a problem. The converted table had multiple
rows of content grouped into the same text box, resulting a formatting error in the exported
file. So I manually formatted “Table 1”, then imported the file into Transmate again and
started the translation. Finally, the translated table was exported and merged into the
translation document. The table formatting problem was thus solved.
Figure 4-3 “Table 2” of the original text during translating in Transmate:
Figure 4-4 the translated “Table 2” of the original text
Tables and figures are frequently used in management papers to show the
information. Hence it is inevitable that translators have to deal with them. With the OCR
tools like that is provided by WPS and the C AT tools, translators can notably improve
their efficiency. In this case, I provide a method to solve such kind of problems.
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河北大学硕士学位论文
Chapter 5 Conclusion
Throughout the translation process I encountered many problems, including the
understanding of the background knowledge, the analysis of the features of the literature style,
and the analysis of the syntactic structure and so on. Some problems can be solved by referring to
parallel texts, while some problems have to be analyzed and solved according to the context.
Through this project, I gianed a deeper understanding of the text typology theory and
skopostheory, and exercised and improved my translation ability, but many problems still need
further consideration. Hereafter are the summary of my translation experience, theoretical reflects,
and the shortcomings of the translation.
My experience about the translation of management literature in this project is as follows.
First of all, the understanding of the background knowledge and language structure of the
translated text is the key factor to ensure the accuracy of the translation. Therefore, translators
should not rush to translate when they get the materials, but should first read through the original
text to have an overall knowledge of it, and then consult the referential materials to fully
understand the terminology and syntactic meaning and grasp the text features of the
corresponding field to ensure the accuracy and professionalism.
Secondly, the translation theory and translation skills should be properly combined.
Sometimes translators may be trapped in a specific question like the translation of “spiking tree”.
There are more than one practicable ways to solve it, but it is really hard to keep both the simple
form and the multiple information. However, form the perspective of skopostheory, it is not
necessary to keep them together, because only the information is indispensable. Properly
combining of skills and theory will give us more room for manoeuvre.
Thirdly, the translator’s language level of the target language finally determines the
translation quality. There are great differences between English and Chinese in terms of grammar
system and language structure. English sentences can be long and complex without being lengthy,
while Chinese tends to use short sentences. Excessively long modifying components may reduce
the readability of the sentences. Translators must use all kind of language skills to make the
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Chapter 5 Conclusion
expression rich and flexible.
Through this translation practice, I also gained a deeper understanding of the skopostheory.
To properly apply skopostheory into a translation project, an explicit translation brief is
essential, which contains many details about the translation task. In the ideal situation, these
details should be given by the clients. However, sometimes translators should infer the skopos
from the translational situation itself. It needs translators to have a comprehensive and deep
understanding about style of the original text and the target text, because certain types of text are
normally translated by certain types of translation, which is also the basis on which Resis built up
her text typology theory. Additionally, translators should avoid to be trapped in excessive free
translation. All the translation work should go along the way set by the purpose of the project. A
conservative but effective approach is to try not to use free translation unless necessary and
evidence-based, for example, the translation of culture-loaded words or phrases as “spiking trees”.
In addition to the above summary, there are still imperfections and problems that need further
consideration.
Although I had consulted relevant materials and read some parallel texts, I was unable to
perfectly understand the specialized language of management papers. Therefore, my
understanding of the professional knowledge may had some deviations, which led to some
inaccurate expressions in the translation. In addition, I still need to improve my understanding of
the three principles of skopostheory. During translating, I tried to make the translation as faithful
as possible to the original text, and tried to deal with it flexibly only when the fidelity principle
conflicts with the skopos principle. But the application of some translation strategies might be
subjective and the translation might not be good enough. These are also my improving directions.
In brief, this translation practice made me realize more clearly that translation is not only a
combination of translation theory and translation skills, but a complicated trade-off process in
practice. As an English translation major, it is important for me to continuously improve myself in
practice. In addition, in my future study and work, I will enrich my knowledge reserve,
continuously deepen my understanding of all kinds of translation theories, using them to improve
my translation, and work hard to become a qualified translator.
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