论文范文:土木工程学术论文英汉翻译实践报告

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 09:54
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
本报告是基于土木工程类的学术论文《混凝土粘结剂制造相关减少二氧化碳排放替代 法的综述》的翻译实践。源文本重点介绍了制造粘结剂的各种替代方法,以减少碳排放, 是一篇典
本报告是基于土木工程类的学术论文《混凝土粘结剂制造相关减少二氧化碳排放替代
法的综述》的翻译实践。源文本重点介绍了制造粘结剂的各种替代方法,以减少碳排放,
是一篇典型的科技类文本。当今世界,随着我国现代经济社会和科学信息技术的迅猛发展,
国际科技交流与合作日益频繁,科技英语翻译的研究和应用也越来越广泛,本文以目的论
为理论指导进行研究分析,旨在总结归纳科技文本在词汇、句法和篇章层面的翻译方法,
从而促进原文信息传播。
本报告共包含五个部分,第一部分为引言,主要介绍报告的研究背景、目的以及意义。
第二部分为任务描述,包括对于文本内容以及文本语言特点的介绍,土木工程学术论文具
有自身的特点和规律,就词汇层面而言,源文本中大量使用专业术语;就句法层面而言,
源文本中多使用被动句、复杂句;就篇章层面而言,源文本逻辑连贯、思维准确、表达精
炼,非常注重逻辑上的衔接与连贯。第三部分为翻译过程描述,笔者主要针对译前准备、
翻译过程以及翻译质量控制三个阶段进行描述。第四部分为案例分析,是本报告中最重要
的一部分。笔者针对源文本在词汇、句法和语篇层面存在的难点进行分析。在词汇层面,
笔者重点分析了土木工程术语、专有名词以及名词化词汇的翻译方法;在句法层面,主要
对被动句和复杂句的翻译方法进行探究;在语篇层面,笔者分别对语篇的衔接、连贯以及
主位推进模式进行阐述,从而提高译文的质量。第五部分为结语,笔者对本次翻译实践进
行了总结,阐述了对于本报告的收获及存在的问题。
通过此次翻译实践,笔者解决了许多翻译难题,自身的翻译技巧得到了很大提高,翻
译经验得以丰富,并加深了笔者对科技文本的理解。笔者希望通过本报告帮助普通读者更
好地了解关于土木工程方面的知识,也希望能够激励更多的人参与到科技文本的翻译实践
当中。
关键词:科技英语翻译;目的论;翻译策略
iii
Contents
Contents
Abstract........................................................................................................................................... i
摘 要..............................................................................................................................................iii
1. Introduction................................................................................................................................1
 1.1 Background of the Report...................................................................................................1
 1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Report..............................................................................2
 1.3 General Structure of the Report..........................................................................................2
2. Task Description.........................................................................................................................3
 2.1 Introduction to the Source Text.......................................................................................... 3
 2.2 Features of the Source Text.................................................................................................3
 2.3 Target Readers.....................................................................................................................4
3. Process Description....................................................................................................................6
 3.1 Pre-translation Preparation................................................................................................. 6
 3.1.1 Preparation of References.........................................................................................6
 3.1.2 Preparation of Translation Theory............................................................................ 6
 3.1.3 Translation Tools.......................................................................................................7
 3.2 Translation Process............................................................................................................. 7
 3.3 Quality Assurance...............................................................................................................8
 3.3.1 Establishment of a Term Bank..................................................................................9
 3.3.2 Advice from Doctors in Civil Engineering...............................................................9
 3.3.3 Feedback from the Supervisor and Professors..........................................................9
4. Case Analysis............................................................................................................................10
 4.1 Translation at Lexical Level............................................................................................. 10
 4.1.1 Translation of Technical Terms in Civil Engineering............................................. 10
 4.1.2 Translation of Proper Nouns................................................................................... 11
 4.1.3 Translation of Nominalized Words......................................................................... 12
 4.2 Translation at Syntactic Level...........................................................................................13
 4.2.1 Translation of Passive Sentences............................................................................14
 4.2.2 Translation of Complicated Sentences....................................................................16
 4.3 Translation at Textual Level..............................................................................................18
 4.3.1 Cohesion in Translation.......................................................................................... 18
 4.3.2 Coherence in Translation........................................................................................ 19
 4.3.3 Thematic Progression in Translation...................................................................... 20
5. Conclusion................................................................................................................................ 22
References.....................................................................................................................................23
Appendices....................................................................................................................................24
Appendix One Source Text.....................................................................................................24
Appendix Two Target Text......................................................................................................58
Appendix Three Term Bank....................................................................................................84
Acknowledgments........................................................................................................................88
iv
1. Introduction
1. Introduction
With the rapid development of economic society and science and technology, the
international academic exchanges are becoming more and more frequent. At the same time, the
status of English as the lingua franca in the world is constantly strengthened. Therefore, the
application of EST (English for science and technology) translation is becoming more and more
widespread.
1.1 Background of the Report
In recent years, with the Chang'e 4 landing on the back of the moon, China's successful
completion of the first maritime space launch, and the official release of a 5G commercial license
in China, a series of scientific and technological achievements in China have scored major
innovations and breakthroughs. Due to the continuous development of science and technology,
the translation of scientific and technological materials has received more and more attention.
Under this background, English has laid the foundation for the exchange and communication of
science and technology and other information. Therefore, to learn advanced science and
technology in countries around the world depends on the EST translation. The significance of
scientific and technological English translation can be evident.
English for science and technology (EST) is an important register variant of modern English.
It generally refers to practical English in scientific writings, dissertations, textbooks, scientific
reports and academic lectures in natural sciences and engineering, which has gradually become a
common language for the international technology community to communicate with each other.
A Review of Alternative Approaches to the Reduction of CO2 Emissions Associated with the Manufacture of the Binder Phase in Concrete is an academic article in civil engineering. The
source article mainly introduces several types of concrete binder phases, alternative fuels and
alternative raw materials in the manufacture of cement productions, and the approaches to reduce
carbon pollution and protect the environment. This is a typical civil engineering article. It is
necessary for the author to understand the the stylistic characteristics of EST articles and their
language expressions. Since the translation quality of EST articles may influence the
development and exchanges of science and technology domestically and overseas, excellent
translation of these articles helps people to participate more effectively in international scientific
and technological exchanges, cooperation and competition. Therefore, the author chooses this
civil engineering article as the source text for translation and research.
1
1. Introduction
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Report
The vocabulary, syntax and discourse of EST have their own characteristics, so it has great
research value, and has now become an independent English discipline. However, in the process
of data collection, the author finds that most scholars focus on the general characteristics and
translation techniques of EST translation, but rarely study the characteristics and techniques of
EST translation in specific science and technology fields. Even if there is a discussion of related
professional fields, relatively little is involved in civil engineering English. Therefore, the author
selects this scientific and technological article in civil engineering English, and discusses it from
three levels: vocabulary, syntax and discourse. As the source text describes alternative
approaches to the reduction of CO2 emissions combined with the manufacture of the binder
phase, the translation of the source text can provide a reference for domestic students and experts
in civil engineering to have a more systematic, comprehensive, and in-depth understanding of the
development status of cement and concrete in other countries.
In addition, this translation project also provides the author with valuable opportunities for
translation practice. The author hopes to summarize the linguistic characteristics of the source
text, and tries to provide specific solutions to the difficulties encountered in the translation
procedure, in order to provide a reference for the translation of similar texts.
1.3 General Structure of the Report
This report contains five parts. The first part is the introduction, introducing the background,
purpose and significance of the report. The second part is the task description, which includes
introduction to the ST, features of the ST and target readers. The third part is the process
description, which mainly includes pre-translation, translation process and quality assurance. The
fourth part is pivotal throughout the report. This part is guided by Skopos theory. The author
analyzes the translation of the ST from three aspects: vocabulary, sentence, and discourse. Firstly,
the author pays attention to the translation of technical terms, proper nouns, and nominalized
words at the lexical level; secondly, the author analyzes the translation of passive sentences, and
complicated sentences from the syntactic level; finally, the author discusses the cohesion,
coherence and thematic progression of discourse. The fifth part is the conclusion. The author
summarizes the full text, and then elaborates her gains in the development of scientific English,
the limitations of her own translation, and her expectations for the future development of EST.
2
2. Task Description
2. Task Description
Before the translation task begins, the author must clearly understand the task. Therefore, in
this part, the author briefly introduces the task from the aspects of ST introduction, features of ST,
and target readers.
2.1 Introduction to the Source Text
The source text is a civil engineering academic article published in the journal Cement and
Concrete Research, No. 78, 126-142 in 2015. The journal, Cement and Concrete Research, is the
most prestigious civil engineering journal with the CiteScore of 8.29. The journal presents the
results of research on the properties and performance of cement and concrete, novel
experimental techniques, the latest analytical and modeling methods, the examination and the
diagnosis of real cement and concrete structures, and the potential for improved materials. Some
of the authors are regarded as the best ones on cement, cement composites, concrete and other
allied materials that incorporate cement by professionals. So are the two co-authors in the source
text, Ellis Gartner and Hiroshi Hirao. They are all professionals who have a lot of practical
experience in the field of civil engineering. As a result, the source text can provides useful
professional information for the readers interested in civil engineering.
There are three major parts in the source article. The first part outlines alternative
approaches to the reduction of CO2 emissions associated with the manufacture of the binder
phase in concrete, such as using alternative fuels and alternative raw materials in the
manufacture of Portland-based cements, replacing Portland clinker with “low-carbon”
supplementary cemented materials in concrete, and developing alternative low-carbon binders
not based on Portland clinkers. The second part introduces the alternative fuels and raw materials
for the manufacture of Portland-based cements. The third part discusses what can be done to make even more carbon-efficient hydraulic binders. This article focuses on how to find the
alternative approaches to the reduction of CO2 emissions combined with the manufacture of the
binder phase in concrete.
2.2 Features of the Source Text
The source text of the report is an academic article with its own textual and linguistic
characteristics. In order to accurately, succinctly and clearly describe natural phenomena, facts
and their development process, nature and characteristics, scientific and technological writers
3
2. Task Description
like to use some typical sentence patterns and a large number of professional terms in the article,
thus forming the characteristics of EST itself. The technical article emphasizes science, logic and
objectivity, which are characterized by concise language, precise structure, and clear expression,
with few rhetorical devices (Fang Mengzhi, 1989:27). Given the particularity of the EST article,
there are some obvious features at lexical, syntactic and textual levels.
With regard to lexical features, the EST articles convey scientific and technological
information and facts, which requires concepts to be clear and accurate, in order to reflect the
characteristics of science, accuracy, and preciseness. This requires the use of scientific and
technological terminology. The features of these technical terms are mainly reflected in the
specialization and the diversity of word formation methods, and the frequency of nominal
structures (Dai Wenjin, 2003:45-47). And in order to make the technical articles more concise
and consistent with English expressions, nominalized words are extensively adopted.
With regard to syntactic features, the purpose of EST sentences is to transmit information
optimally. Therefore, passive sentences, attributive clauses and long and difficult sentences is
very frequent (Dai Wenjin, 2003:47-49). The use of passive voice can be regarded as the most
common one in EST article, which can ensure the objective authenticity of the text. Extensive
use of attributive clauses, which can simply describe the relationship among different things to
avoid the complicated and lengthy sentence structure. Complicated sentences can also be found
in a certain number in the source text. In all, the ST expresses a variety of concepts in logic,
rigorous and accurate narration.
With regard to the textual features, EST attaches great importance to cohesion, coherence
and logic. Therefore, when describing multiple objectives and phenomena, EST discourse
frequently uses cohesive devices to maintain the coherence between paragraphs and sentences,
and also emphasize the internal logical relationship. Halliday and Hasan (1976) believe that
cohesion is a semantic conception, which refers to the relationship among the semantic groups in
a text. As the objective expression and professional content in the EST discourse, cohesion and
coherence pay important rules in the progress of translation. The cohesion of the discourse is
conducive to the clear expression of semantics, and the coherence of the discourse depends on
the use of cohesive devices. Meanwhile, the logical relationship of EST discourse is obvious, It
is required that the discourse be strict in language organization and clear in hierarchy, and the
discourse should be consistent and coherent.
2.3 Target Readers
The ST mainly discusses the alternative approaches combined with the manufacture of the
binder phase in concrete, which can reduce the emission of the CO2. Therefore, the target readers
4
2. Task Description
of this report can be divided into domestic professors and experts in civil engineering, the
employee in government authorities and enterprises, and the students majoring in civil
engineering.
Domestic professors and experts in the field of civil engineering can read the translation of
this report to learn more about civil engineering expertise in foreign countries, which can provide
assistance for their research and learning. Those personnel are the first target readers.
As the technology in the ST can reduce CO2 emissions during the concrete manufacturing
process to protect the environment, employees in the government authorities concerned with
environmental protection and concrete manufacturing companies are the second target readers.
In the context of globalization, students major in civil engineering need to expand their
horizons and acquire professional knowledge and skills in this field from various aspects, such as
foreign journal articles. In addition, the translation strategies in this report can help them in the
process of writing related papers. Therefore, civil engineering students are the third target readers.
5
3. Process Description
3. Process Description
This part can be divided into pre-translation preparation, translation process and quality
assurance. These processes play a vital role in ensuring the quality of the translation, and even
affect the writing progress of the entire report.
3.1 Pre-translation Preparation
The pre-translation preparation step makes a solid foundation for the whole translation
process which helps the author to establish a good attitude towards translation and understand
the contents and difficulties of translation.
In consideration of the technical terms, the rigorous structure and the consistent and
accurate statement of the source text, the author reads through the source text before translating,
in order to get familiar with the content of the text. At the same time, the author sets the basic
tone of the translation version, and collects the technical terms preliminarily.
Meanwhile, the author looks up and summarized relevant background knowledge, such as
related books and articles, and parallel texts before translating so as to grasp the terms and
language style of the ST.
3.1.1 Preparation of References
The main function of EST articles is to transmit information, which requires the author to
play the role of information transmitter in the process of translation. To translate EST articles,
firstly, the author needs to understand and be familiar with the scientific content of the translation.
Thus, the author looks up and summarizes relevant background knowledge of civil engineering,
such as related books and articles, and contacts two civil engineering students in advance so that
the author can ask for help in the process of translating the ST. In addition, the author must
master the vocabulary and usage of the relevant content in civil engineering, therefore, the author
refers to the original and translation of relevant parallel texts so as to grasp the terms and
language style of the civil engineering related text in order to ensure that the TT is authentic.
3.1.2 Preparation of Translation Theory
Skopos theory is a theoretical model of translation study from the perspective of target
language, thus is chosen as the theoretical model of translation study from the perspective of
target language. It takes the function of translation as its orientation and pays attention to the
practicability of translation.
6
3. Process Description
Vermeer first put forward Skopos in his paper Framework for a General Translation Theory,
and concretely illustrated three principles in the Skopos theory. The first one is the Skopos rule,
that is, the purpose of translation determines the translation process. The next one is the
coherence rule, which indicates that the translation has coherence and acceptability in the context
of target language (Munday, 2010:101). And the last one is the fidelity rule, namely, the
translator must be loyalty to the reader and the original writer (Ma Huijuan & Miao Ju, 2009:82).
As far as the scientific and technological translation is concerned, Skopos theory proposed by
Vermeer is of great significance in guiding the research of scientific and technological translation.
The methods and strategies of scientific and technological translation should be achieved by the
intended purpose of the translation. In accordance with the Skopos theory, the most significant
factor that determines the purpose of translation is the target language reader (Vermeer, 2003:56).
In the theoretical framework of Skopos theory, the process of translation should be based on the
realization of the expected function of the translation in the target language (Ping Hong,
2002:20). In a word, Skopos theory is important for the translation of non-literary text. The
author uses these rules as the guideline of her report.
3.1.3 Translation Tools
The author chooses to use SDL Trados and Ktrans as the main translation tools to make the
translation of the article more precise, consistent and fluent, which greatly improves the
efficiency and maintains the consistency of the translation. SDL Trados is convenient and
efficient for corpus matching, while Ktrans has simple operation interface and complete
terminology bank system for the translation. Compared with traditional translation, C AT
technology has many advantages, such as improving the translation speed, providing sufficient
corpus for the author, helping the author to complete fuzzy translation, ensuring the relative
accuracy of translation and consistency of terms. The use of C AT tools can make the translation
conform to the reading habits of the target readers.
In addition to this, the author also makes the utmost of Internet resources to look up the
meanings of the terminologies. Thus, the CNKI dictionary is adopted as an assistant tool for the
translation process, as well as Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, One Dict., SCIdict. for civil
engineering, Bing Dictionary, to ensure the authenticity and professionalism of the translation.
3.2 Translation Process
In the translation process, the author adopts three principles of the Skopos theory as the
theoretical guidance, namely “the skopos rule”, “the coherence rule” and “the fidelity rule”. In
light of the Skopos theory, as the target readers of this report are people with professional
7
3. Process Description
background in civil engineering or interested in civil engineering, the author needs to keep the
veracity of the translation and selects suitable translation strategies, in order that the readers can
precisely understand the EST article.
The process of translation can be divided into two phases, namely, comprehension and
expression. Between them, comprehension is the premise and key of expression. In the
comprehension stage, due to the lack of professional knowledge background, although the author
has collected many materials of civil engineering before translation, there are still difficulties
during translation, such as the understanding of proper nouns and long sentences with complex
structures.
In order to solve these problems, the author selects some authoritative auxiliary tools,
including PowerWord, Youdao dictionary, Wikipedia, Bing, CNKI translation assistant, etc. Then,
the author patiently searches for proper nouns, carefully distinguishes the meaning of these
words, eliminates the barrier of them, so as to ensure the quality of translation and improve the
efficiency of translation. The above methods are adopted to ensure that the translation conforms
to the fidelity rule of Skopos theory.
In terms of long sentences with complex structure, the author carefully analyzes the
sentence structure to avoid making the mistake of faithfulness of the translation caused by the
mistake of syntactic analysis. After a general understanding of the ST, the next stage is
expression. English and Chinese are quite different, so it is not easy to translate the ST into
authentic Chinese. There are a large number of nominalized structures, complicated sentences
and passive sentences in the ST. In order to make the translation smooth, the author deals with
them according to the principle of Skopos theory. For example, in the translation of passive
sentences, the author adopts the methods of transforming them into active voice or maintain the
passive structure. In the translation of complicated sentences, the author firstly analyzes and
clarifies the sentence structure, understands the meaning of them, and then translates it with
appropriate translation strategies. The purpose of these methods is to make the translation
conform to the Chinese expression habit, and to ensure that the translation conforms to the
skopos rule of Skopos theory.
3.3 Quality Assurance
Quality assurance is essential to guarantee the quality of the translation. The EST article
emphasizes the veracity, consistency, and readability. Therefore, in the translation of EST articles,
the accuracy of terminologies, the rigorous logical relation of sentences and the coherence of
discourses must be reflected. Therefore, the author takes the following three steps to ensure the
quality of the translation of the target text.
8
3. Process Description
3.3.1 Establishment of a Term Bank
Due to the particularity of EST articles, there are a large number of proper nouns and
technical terms in the ST. In the process of translation, the author finds that most of the technical
terms are related to the manufacture of concrete in the ST. Therefore, the author first looks up
some relevant dictionaries for civil engineering such as A Concise English-Chinese and
Chinese-English Civil Engineering Vocabulary and English-Chinese Dictionary of Civil and
Architecture Engineering. However, there may be multiple translations of the same word in EST
texts. Owing to the lack of professional knowledge background, the author screens the terms
through the CNKI translation assistant to select the more widely used translation in terms. In
combination with C AT software SDL Trados, a term bank is established to assist the author, in
order to ensure the consistency and accuracy of terminology translation. For the term bank,
please refer to Appendix Three.
3.3.2 Advice from Doctors in Civil Engineering
In order to ensure the quality of translation of the ST, the author revises the translation by
herself. But owing to the shortage of professional background, the author encounters many
difficulties in the translation process. Thus, the author invites Xu Zehua and Yang Jiaqi, doctors
of civil engineering, Tianjin University, to revise her translation during the process and point out
the problems.
3.3.3 Feedback from the Supervisor and Professors
To maintain the accuracy and logic of the technical article, the translation is required to
achieve high quality. Therefore, after finishing translation, the author sends her translation to her
supervisor and civil engineering professors for their professional feedback to let her know the
deficiencies in her translation. Her supervisor revises the framework and grammatical errors of
the report and the professors revise a lot of professional terms and sentences. Finally, according
to the suggestions of the supervisor and the professors, the author makes several modifications to
improve the authenticity and accuracy of the translation.
9
4. Case Analysis
4. Case Analysis
From the perspective of the Skopos theory, the translation of the ST is analyzed from the
lexical level, the syntactic level and the textual level. Based on the linguistic characteristics of
EST article, the author discusses the application of Skopos theory in the translation process and
some strategies commonly used in translation practice. The author tries to find out the effective
ways to solve some difficult problems during the translation through case analysis and tries to
explore technical translating strategies for this translation practice.
4.1 Translation at Lexical Level
As part of the decision-making process, it is very important to choose proper words in the
E-C EST article translation due to the lexical features of preciseness and plainness. There are a
large number of technical words and expressions which have been used repeatedly and
discriminatively in the ST. The author must understand the meaning of the relevant technical
words and translate them carefully. In addition, due to the repetition of technical terms used in
the ST, the author needs to pay attention to the consistency of the terms in translation and to
ensure the professional and technical style of the TT.
4.1.1 Translation of Technical Terms in Civil Engineering
Technical terms are essential to all technical and scientific writings. The great depth and
accuracy of technical and scientific articles come from the concentrating meanings of technical
terms, which have been accumulated in an important period of study of certain fields. The value
of technical terms is that each term condenses a mass of information into a single word or phrase
(Fang Mengzhi, 2003:234). According to Peter Newmark's research, the most obvious difference
between technical texts and other texts is technical vocabulary, although it accounts for a small
proportion of the entire technical texts, which may only be about 5% (Newmark, 2001:141). Also,
technical terms tend to level up the difficulty of understanding and readability for the readers. It
is very important to correctly understand these technical words and expressions in the context
and then translate accordingly. Owing to the high frequency of technical terms in the ST, it’s
difficult to translate so many technical terms for the people without professional background.
Under Skopos theory, the choice of translation strategy and method is depended on whom
the target text intends to address and what purpose the target text intends to fulfill. Therefore, the
author looks up the New Age Chinese-English Dictionary, A Concise English-Chinese and
Chinese-English Civil Engineering Vocabulary and English-Chinese Dictionary of Civil and
10
4. Case Analysis
Architecture Engineering, some online dictionaries, and CNKI translation assistant when
encountering terms and proper nouns, such as “Portland-based cement (硅酸盐水泥)”, “kiln
feed (入窑生料)” and “moist curing (湿养护)”. And the author creates a term bank to maintain
the accuracy and consistency of the translation of terminologies. Please refer to the Appendix
Three for the term bank.
4.1.2 Translation of Proper Nouns
Whatever the English text type it is, proper nouns will always occur. In the EST articles,
proper nouns appear particularly frequent. It can be the names of people, places, companies,
organizations, etc. Since the ST is an overview of the alternative application of the binder phase,
company names and organization names are used more frequently. The author mainly adopts
transliteration and annotated translation methods to analyze the translation of the proper nouns,
so as to improve the readability of the ST. Take the following for examples:
Example 1:
ST: According to the Cement Technology Roadmap 2009 by the IEA and WBCSD, the
alternative fuel ratio was 16% in developed countries and 5% in developing countries in
2006 and is expected to increase to 40% to 60% and 10% to 20%, respectively, by 2030.
TT: 根据国际能源署(International Energy Agency,IEA)和世界可持续发展工商理事会
(World Business Council for Sustainable Development,WBCSD)发布的《2009 年水
泥技术路线图》,2006 年发达国家的替代燃料比率为 16%,发展中国家为 5%,预
计到 2030 年将分别增长至 40%到 60%和 10%到 20%。
Example 2:
ST: NEDO conducted a comprehensive study related to CO2 reduction techniques in cement
industry in 2010.
TT: 2010 年,日本新能源产业技术综合开发机构(New Energy and Industrial Technology
Development Organization,NEDO)对水泥行业二氧化碳减排技术进行了全面研究。
Example 3:
ST: Ordinary Ecocement which satisfies the JIS requirements for OPC, except for its slightly
higher SO3 content (about 3.5%) and presence of chloride ions (about 500 ppm), has a
wide range of applications.
TT: 普通型生态水泥除 SO3 含量稍高(约 3.5%)且有氯离子存在(约 500ppm)外,满足
11
4. Case Analysis
普通硅酸盐水泥日本工业标准(Japanese Industrial Standards,JIS)要求,具有广泛
的应用范围。
In the above examples, the proper nouns “IEA”, “WBCSD”, “NEDO” and “JIS” are
acronyms of, respectively, “International Energy Agency”, “World Business Council for
Sustainable Development”, “New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization
and Japanese Industrial Standards”. In the absence of relevant background knowledge, the
author looks up relevant papers and official websites, selects the fixed translation of the names of
these institutions and organizations and adds comments in parentheses, so that the target readers
can clearly understand the ST.
In accordance with the skopos rule of Skopos theory, translation should serve the purpose of
the text. However, sometimes there is no corresponding Chinese translation of proper nouns in
EST articles. To solve this problem, the author adopts transliteration and annotated translation
methods. Take the following for example:
Example 4:
ST: The CO2 cycle in the Novacem manufacturing process could be more efficient because the
CO2 can be produced in a concentrated stream from the calciner, and thus the gas
concentration step can be avoided.
TT: 诺瓦西姆公司(Novacem)(位于英国伦敦,以生产硅酸镁基新型水泥著称)制造工
艺中的二氧化碳循环效率更高,这是因为二氧化碳可在煅烧炉中的浓缩气流中产生。
In Example 4, the author cannot find the company's official translation after searching the
Internet. Meanwhile, the development of information technology in the era of big data, as well as
the standardization and internationalization of the translation of scientific and technical terms
require translators to change the traditional translation strategy of “free translation”, and instead
adopt the strategy of transliteration (Yang Qiong, 2018:2). Therefore, in order to help readers
better understand the ST, the author uses the translation technique of “annotation” and translated
“Novacem” into “诺瓦西姆” by transliteration. Then, she searches the company's background
through Google and Wikipedia, and adds the company's background so that the readers can
understand the ST.
4.1.3 Translation of Nominalized Words
Technical articles are required to describe objective phenomena and natural laws based on
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the facts. Wherein, the nominalization plays a critical role in technical articles, which can
emphasize the important parts in sentences. The sentence expressions are different between
English and Chinese. English language has a natural tendency to use fewer verbs while Chinese
has an inherent habit of using more verbs. Both English and Chinese have their own structures
and ways of expression, thus the translation cannot be word-by-word. In order for the translation
to conform to the Chinese expression habits and to be clear and coherent, the author needs to
converse parts of speech (Wang Qingbiao & Li Qingxue, 2012:39). In addition, English is a
static language, while Chinese is a dynamic language, and “static and dynamic transformation”
should be done well in translation. Therefore, when the author translates the nominalized words
in the source text, it is necessary for her to choose the appropriate parts of speech.
Example 5:
ST: We expect there to be a continuing societal need for reductions in industrial CO2 emissions.
TT: 预计社会需要继续减少工业二氧化碳的排放。
Example 6:
ST: but there is apparently no indication of this in the recent study on wollastonite carbonation
TT: 但最近关于硅灰石碳化作用的研究中显然没有迹象表明这一点。
According to the requirements of Skopos theory, the author should achieve the equivalent of
ST and TT. Due to the inconsistency between the two languages in the application of parts of
speech, English nouns are frequently used, while Chinese verbs are frequently used. If the author
literally translates the noun, the translation will become obscure and not in line with the Chinese
way of expression. To make the translation fluent and spontaneous, the author uses the method of
conversion to transform the part of speeches and translates them into their corresponding roots,
which is respectively translated from “reduction” and “indication” into the verbs “减少” and “表
明”to avoid the translationese of the translation.
4.2 Translation at Syntactic Level
As an informative text, the translation of EST article has its own features at the syntactic
level. EST texts emphasize the objective and accurate communication of perspective and
information. Therefore, passive sentences, attributive clauses, nominal clauses and complicated
sentences are often found in EST texts. Among them, complex sentences and passive sentences
are difficult to translate. Since the sentence patterns in Chinese are usually running sentences and
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4. Case Analysis
short sentences, it is necessary not only to be faithful to the original content to achieve coherence
within the text, but also to pay attention to the characteristics of English and Chinese when
translating EST texts into Chinese. The author selects appropriate translation methods on the
basis of different purposes of translation.
4.2.1 Translation of Passive Sentences
Passive voice is often used in EST texts, while active voice is often used in Chinese
technical texts. As Yan Junren (2010:99) points out that at least one third of the verbs in the
technical texts are used in the passive voice. This is because the EST concentrates on logicality,
objectivity and accuracy. First or second person will give the readers a subjective impression.
The translated text selected by the author contains a large number of passive sentences. When
translating these passive sentences, the author first analyzes their constituent relations and then
combines the meanings of words to get the appropriate translation.
The form of the passive structure in English is be+v. (past participle), which is commonly
used in EST articles. However, the use of passive sentences in Chinese is far less extensive than
that in English. According to the skopos rule and coherence rule of Skopos theory, in order to
make the translation comprehensible and acceptable, the author adopts two methods to translate
passive sentences. One is to translate them into active sentences, while the other is to translate
them into passive sentences. Take the following for examples:
Example 7:
ST: In 2013, about 4 billion tons of Portland-based hydraulic cement was used globally (about
half of it in China)。
TT: 2013 年,全球共使用了约 40 亿吨硅酸盐基水硬性水泥,其中中国的使用量约占一半。
In Example 7, the author changes the passive voice “is used” to active voice “使用”, in
order to exchange the location between the subject and the object of the original sentence. As we
can see from this example, the subject in source text is “4 billion tons of Portland-based
hydraulic cement”, and there is no object in the source text, so the author translates the adverb
“globally” into the subject of the target text to comply with Chinese idiomatic expression.
Example 8:
ST: There is one other important approach not listed above that can be considered if one looks
at the use of concrete on a functional basis.
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4. Case Analysis
TT: 如果在功能基础上研究混凝土的使用,还可以考虑上述未列出的另一种重要方法。
In Example 8, the author also uses the method of conversion to change the passive voice
“listed” into active voice “ 列 出 ” in target text to maintain the integrity of the translation.
Meanwhile, omitting the subject is one of the typical features of Chinese syntactic structure. In
the translation of technical texts, sometimes the subject is not known nor needed to be spoken,
and then the author can often exploit the advantage of the target text and translate the passive
sentences of English into Chinese sentences without subjects. Therefore, there is no subject in
the target text.
Example 9:
ST: The amount of waste and by-products received by the Japanese cement industry in 2011
was 27 million tons
TT: 2011 年,日本水泥行业回收的废料和副产品达到 2700 万吨。
In Example 9, the author keeps the subject of ST and doesn’t change it. The subject of the
source text is “Japanese cement industry”, and the author keeps it as the subject “日本水泥行
业” in the target text. But the passive voice “received” is transformed into active voice “回收” as
the above.
However, if the original sentence of the ST specially emphasizes the passive meaning or to
keep the consistency of the context, according to the fidelity rule, it is necessary to retain the
passive voice as much as possible when translated into Chinese.
Example 10:
ST: It appears that the catalysis of calcium carbonate crystal growth by marine organisms
evolved quite early and has never been superseded by a biological mechanism for
crystallizing magnesite or dolomite.
TT: 看来,海洋生物很早之前就进化出对碳酸钙晶体生成的催化作用,并且从未被菱镁矿
或白云石结晶的生物学机制所取代。
In Example 10, the author translates the passive voice in English sentence into the passive
voice in Chinese sentence. In order to explain the scientific principle and definition, the passive
predicate structure is usually used in the translation of EST articles. Here the author translates the
passive voice “has never been superseded” into “从未被……所取代”, which not only improves
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4. Case Analysis
the acceptability of the translation, but also improves the article’s readability of the translation.
From the above examples, it’s known to us that in the process of translation between
English and Chinese technical texts, the author should flexibly change the active and passive
voice according to the different features of the two languages, so as to better meet the needs of
target readers.
4.2.2 Translation of Complicated Sentences
Different from Chinese, English sentence structure is obviously more logical, which in part
makes long and complex sentences more common and regular. However, for Chinese, short
sentences are more natural and common, and the logical relationship is usually hidden in the
meaning of the sentence.
Therefore, the word-for-word translation is unlikely to be realized during the translating
practice. In accordance with the skopos rule, the transformation between the long and
complicated sentences and the short sentences in the E-C translation of science and technology
article is significant for a qualified target text. The traditional methods of translating long and
difficult sentences include keeping the original sentence order, changing the sentence order,
translating variable order and dividing the sentence (Hua Xianfa, 2008:85-90). A single method
has its own limitations, and it is difficult to face all kinds of complex and variable long and
difficult sentences. Therefore, when translating the complicated sentences, the author should take
the skopos rule as the criterion, flexibly adopt various translation methods, and when necessary,
use various methods comprehensively. Take the following for examples:
Example 11:
ST: Unfortunately, due to the variability of actual carbonation rates and the fact that excessive
carbonation of steel-reinforced structural concrete is usually considered undesirable for
durability reasons, it is difficult to determine the best way to take into account delayed
carbonation of the binder in use.
TT: 遗憾的是,由于钢骨-钢管结构混凝土实际碳化速率多变,以及易过度碳化而通常被
认为其不耐久,故在使用粘结剂时,考虑到上述原因,难以确定延迟其碳化的最佳方
法。
Example 11 is a complicated long sentence and a complex one, which includes an
appositive clause. In this example, the English expression pattern is in line with that of Chinese,
so the author translates the target text in the order of the source text. Moreover, if the subject or
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4. Case Analysis
other components in the source text are not suitable to be translated as the subject , the source
language can be translated into a sentence without subject.
And in the passive sentence, the author transfers the source text “is usually considered” into
a passive voice for “被认为”, for the reason that the dominant passivity means a tendency to
increase the readability in Chinese scientific translation.
In many English sentence patterns, the expressions of causality, transition and logical
connection are not all expressed by logical and grammatical words, but by grammatical habits or
diction habits. Therefore, the Chinese translation of such sentences should be supplemented with
related words. So the author adds “ 故 ” to connect the context for the coherence of the
translation.
Example 12:
ST: Note also that the subject of alkali-activated binders, which also falls under option (3), will
not be treated here, as it will be the subject of a separate review paper in this issue.
TT: 另请注意,因为同属选项(3)的碱激发粘结剂将作为本期另一篇独立综述论文的主
题进行阐述,所以将不在此讨论。
The above example is a complex sentence, including an object clause, a non-restrictive
attributive clause and an adverbial clause of reason. The author changes the sentence order to
translate this sentence. Since Chinese and English have their own “natural word order”, the
author should pay attention to their own grammatical structure when translating, therefore, it is
necessary to adjust the word order of the original sentence according to the Chinese syntactic
structure, sometimes this adjustment is also a means of emphasis (Yan Junren, 2004:141).
Therefore, the author translates the object clause into a short sentence in Chinese to adapt to
Chinese language habits. And because the non-restrictive attributive clause “which also falls
under option (3)” modifies “the subject of alkali-activated binders”, the author translates it into
an attribute in the target text. As for the adverbial clause of reason, the author changes the order
of it and connects it with Chinese related words in translation, which is more consistent with the
logical coherence in Chinese.
In the above example, the author uses division and sequential method to translate complex
sentences, thus increasing the readability and acceptability of the TT to target readers. In addition,
when translating complex sentences, more methods can be chosen to make translation easier.
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4. Case Analysis
4.3 Translation at Textual Level
Translation is not a mechanical addition of individual sentence translations, but is based on
the discourse. Discourse is a semantic unit which is composed of coherent sentences or
paragraphs to express the whole concept. In terms of linguistic form, cohesion exists between
sentences in a discourse, such as conjunction, substitution, ellipsis and reference, and in terms of
semantic logic, the discourse has beginnings and ends, and the concepts or propositions reflected
in each paragraph are coherent, rather than irrelevant (Lyons, 1977:613). The translation of the
discourse is guided by the Skopos theory, aiming at transmitting the information of the EST
article. As English pays attention to hypotaxis while Chinese pays attention to Parataxis, the
author needs to concentrate on the textual structure and the differences between English and
Chinese when translating the discourse of the ST. And the source text information should be
conveyed precisely and evidently to the target readers.
4.3.1 Cohesion in Translation
The textual cohesion is used to keep the accuracy and logicality of EST articles. Halliday
and Hasan (1976) believe that the coherence of discourse is built on the cohesive relation. In
EST article discourse, cohesion is the key to convey the meaning of the source text due to the
rigorous expression and professional content. The textual cohesion should ensure the consistency
of logical relationship between the source text and the target text. Cohesion mainly aims at the
understanding of the surface form of the discourse. There are four ways of cohesion: reference,
substitution, ellipsis and conjunction. In accordance with the characteristics of EST, the above
four methods can be applied to ST to achieve textual coherence. Take the following for
examples:
Example 13:
ST: Although coal ash and sewage sludge ash can be used as alternative to clay in Portland
cement clinker raw materials, they tend to be higher in Al2O3 content and lower in SiO2
content compared to natural clay. If they are used to manufacture Portland cement clinker,
the resulting clinker will have an unusually high C3A content.
TT: 虽然在硅酸盐水泥熟料原料中,可以使用粉煤灰和污泥灰替代粘土,但与天然粘土相
比,二者的氧化铝含量较高,而二氧化硅含量较低。如果将它们用于生产硅酸盐水泥
熟料,则生成的熟料铝酸三钙含量将会异常高。
In this example, the ST contains two sentences, which include an adverbial clause of
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4. Case Analysis
concession and an adverbial clause of condition. The author uses the method of highlighting
reference words and division for translation. Halliday believes that the relationship between
cohesion and coherence is like that between a building and its foundation, and cohesion makes
an important contribution to coherence (Halliday, 1985:34). Reference is a grammatical means to
express the semantic relationship. Emphasis on reference in translation makes the paragraphs
more structurally cohesive and semantically coherent. The theme of this example is “coal ash
and sewage sludge ash”. The author chooses to highlight the reference “they” in different forms,
therefore, translates the two “they” separately into “二者” and “它们” to represent “粉煤灰和污
泥灰”. Given the differences in sentence structure between English and Chinese, when English is
translated into Chinese, the structure that is not consistent with Chinese in the source text can be
separated. Then, the author divides the second comparative sentence into short sentences and
arranges them in parallel in the order of Chinese order.
Example 14:
ST: But it will be understood that such binders are primarily intended for use in precast
products due to the need to provide a concentrated CO2 atmosphere for the curing process;
and also that such products will typically be either unreinforced or else reinforced with
materials that do not corrode significantly in a matrix at pH values typically well below the
range needed to passivate mild steel.
TT: 但可以理解的是,由于需要为固化过程提供高浓度二氧化碳气体,这种粘结剂主要用
于混凝土预制产品。这些混凝土预制产品要么未加固,要么使用在该基体中不明显腐
蚀的材料加固,其 pH 值远低于钝化低碳钢所需范围。
In the above example, the ST contains two subject clauses guided by “that”, in which the
latter clause also contains an attributive clause. In Example 14, the “products” refer to the
“precast products” in the source text. Repetition is used in the translation to keep the semantic
consistency of the source text, which can not only eliminate ambiguity but also establish a
reference relationship of the target text. Meanwhile, the conjunction word “either unreinforced
or else reinforced with materials” in the source text is translated into “要么未加固,要么使用在
该基体中不明显腐蚀的材料加固” due to the cohesion rule without changing the coordinate
relationship of the source text, so as to achieve the coherence of the target text.
4.3.2 Coherence in Translation
The translation process is not only the transformation of linguistic symbols, but also the
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4. Case Analysis
reconstruction of coherent structures (Li Yunxing, 2001:172). Semantic coherence is a logical
mechanism that connects words and sentences into a larger semantic structure. Coherence is
different from cohesion in that cohesion is accomplished through lexical and grammatical means,
while coherence is accomplished through the orderly arrangement of information. In the process
of translation, in addition to the tangible conjunctions that play a role in the discourse, there is
also a latent semantic logic that plays a guiding role in readers’ comprehension. Take the
following for example:
Example 15:
ST: In practice, the only greenhouse gas of concern here is CO2, as only very small amounts of
other greenhouse gases are emitted in cement manufacture. However, there is an important
unresolved issue regarding the full life-cycle analysis, relating to in-use CO2 uptake.
TT: 由于水泥生产过程中只排放了非常少量其他温室气体,因此在实践中,唯一值得关注
的温室气体是二氧化碳。然而,在使用中的二氧化碳吸收方面,关于全生命周期的分
析还存在一个重要的未解决问题。
Every technical text has its internal logical relation which requires that every part of a
discourse should be related to each other in meaning. In Example 15, the conjunction “as”
explains the reason why “only greenhouse gas of concern here is CO2”, and the transitional word
“however” underlines that despite the emphasis on greenhouse gas, “there is an important
unresolved issue”. The correct and proper use of cohesive words make the logical relations of the
text clear, and the meaning of the source text more coherent. In order to reconstruct the logical
relations to achieve intertextual coherence, the author adjusts the word order to make the original
text conform to the habit of Chinese word order and achieve the purpose of coherence in target
text.
4.3.3 Thematic Progression in Translation
Each sentence possesses a theme-rheme structure. The themes and rhemes are not only
associated with each other, but also consist of some alteration, which promote the development
of the text forward (Zhu Yongsheng and Yan Shiqing, 2001:102-103). The connection and
change of themes and rhemes form certain thematic progression pattern in discourse. The themes
and rhemes are arranged in a linear way, starting from the old information and connecting with
some new message, so that the discourse can be expanded and developed forward, so as to
achieve the cohesion and coherence for the discourse.
Thematic progression is a significant means to accomplish discourse coherence. The
appropriate use of thematic progression in the EST articles can better present the views and ideas
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4. Case Analysis
of authors. Meanwhile, if translators can reasonably use the theme advancement mode in the
target discourse expressed in a coherent form of text that conforms to the native language, it can
not only achieve the principle of functional equivalence, but also maximize its conformity to the
habits of the native language users, so that the translation can be widely recognized. Take the
following for example:
Example 16:
ST: Inclusion of the use of alternative fuels under the heading “low-carbon” is somewhat
questionable on scientific grounds, because it does not necessarily reduce CO2 emissions
per unit of product; but it is one of the least costly approaches available to the cement
industry, and it is permitted by carbon emissions regulations in certain circumstances, so it
has been included here.
TT: 在“低碳”标题下纳入替代燃料的使用,从科学的角度看是存疑的,因为它不一定能
减少每单位产品的二氧化碳排放量。但这是水泥行业可用的将成本降至最低的方法之
一,并且在某些情况下,碳排放法规允许使用这种方法,因此本文将其包括在内。
In Example 16, the original position of the theme and rheme in the source text is not
transformed in the target text. In this clause group, constant theme patterns are used to organize
the logic. Wherein, the four personal pronouns “it”, the themes, in these clauses all refer to “the
use of alternative fuels”, and the four corresponding different rhemes are used to promote the
information progress forward. The author reserves this kind of thematic progression pattern, that
is, she chooses “it” as the theme in the target text to keep the consistency of the source text, and
translates them respectively into “它”, “这”, “这种方法” and “其”, which can make it easy for
readers to understand the relative information.