论文范文:网络报刊泛读法在高中英语阅读教学中的应用研究

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 09:55
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
英语阅读作为英语教学中不可或缺的一部分,在语言学习中发挥着重要作用,它 不仅对语言知识的学习非常重要,也是其他技能领域发展的关键。因此,英语阅读教 学越来越受到重视
英语阅读作为英语教学中不可或缺的一部分,在语言学习中发挥着重要作用,它
不仅对语言知识的学习非常重要,也是其他技能领域发展的关键。因此,英语阅读教
学越来越受到重视。然而,目前高中英语阅读教学中仍存在许多问题,克服和解决教
学过程中出现的问题是一项具有挑战性的任务。因此,英语教师必须在英语阅读教学
中尝试新的教学方法。
本文试图将网络报刊泛读法应用于阅读教学中,作为传统教学方法的补充。泛读
教学法起源于 20 世纪 60 年代,它的理论基础主要有克拉申的输入假说和情感过滤假
说,它将重点从语言知识转移到对阅读材料的一般理解上。本文对高中生采用网络报
刊泛读法进行教学,以激发他们的阅读兴趣,增强阅读动机,并提升综合阅读能力。
本研究试图解决以下三个问题:
问题 1:网络报刊泛读法可以在多大程度上提升高中生的阅读速度?
问题 2:网络报刊泛读法可以在多大程度上提高高中生的阅读理解能力?
问题 3:网络报刊泛读法能在多大程度上增强高中生的阅读动机?
本研究在辽宁省建昌县第三高级中学的高二学生中进行,共持续了 18 周。本研
究的实验对象共有 170 人,实验一班 58 人,实验二班 57 人,对照班 55 人。实验一
班采用教师指导和课外泛读任务相结合的教学方式,实验二班仅采用课外泛读任务的
教学方法,而对照班只有常规的课堂阅读教学,既无教师指导也无课外泛读任务。
本实验的研究结果表明,网络报刊泛读法对提高学生的阅读能力具有积极的作
用,它不仅可以提高学生的综合阅读能力,而且可以极大地激发学生的阅读兴趣,增
强阅读动机。
关键词:网络报刊泛读教学法;英语阅读教学;英语阅读能力
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Contents
Abstract..................................................................................................................................i
摘 要...............................................................................................................................iii
Contents................................................................................................................................iv
Chapter One Introduction...................................................................................................1
 1.1 Background of the research............................................................................................................ 1
 1.2 Significance of the research............................................................................................................2
 1.3 Purpose of the research...................................................................................................................2
 1.4 Organization of the research...........................................................................................................3
Chapter Two Literature review.......................................................................................... 4
 2.1 A brief review of reading................................................................................................................ 4
 2.1.1 Definitions of reading.......................................................................................................... 4
 2.1.2 Methods of reading.............................................................................................................. 5
 2.2 A brief review of extensive reading................................................................................................6
 2.2.1 Characteristics of extensive reading.................................................................................... 6
 2.2.2 Advantages of extensive reading......................................................................................... 8
 2.2.3 Goals of extensive reading.................................................................................................11
 2.3 The theoretical framework of extensive reading.......................................................................... 11
 2.3.1 Krashen’s Input Hypothesis............................................................................................... 11
 2.3.2 Affective Filter Hypothesis................................................................................................12
 2.4 Relevant studies of extensive reading abroad.............................................................................. 13
 2.5 Relevant studies of extensive reading at home............................................................................ 18
 2.6 Summary.......................................................................................................................................19
Chapter Three Research methodology.............................................................................20
 3.1 Research questions........................................................................................................................20
 3.2 Research participants....................................................................................................................20
 3.3 Research instruments....................................................................................................................21
 3.3.1 Questionnaires....................................................................................................................21
 3.3.2 Tests....................................................................................................................................22
 3.3.3 Interviews...........................................................................................................................23
 3.3.4 SPSS software....................................................................................................................23
 3.4 Research procedures..................................................................................................................... 23
 3.4.1 Materials for the treatment.................................................................................................24
 3.4.2 The teaching procedures in the experimental class one.....................................................26
 3.4.3 The teaching procedures in the experimental class two.................................................... 26
 3.4.4 The teaching procedures in the control class.....................................................................26
 3.4.5 A sample lesson in the experimental class one..................................................................26
 3.5 Data collection.............................................................................................................................. 28
Chapter Four Data analysis and discussion.....................................................................30
 4.1 Analysis of the questionnaires...................................................................................................... 30
 4.1.1 Analysis of questionnaires of EC1 and EC2......................................................................30
 4.1.2 Analysis of questionnaires of EC1 and CC........................................................................32
 4.1.3 Analysis of questionnaires of EC2 and CC........................................................................33
 4.2 Analysis of the tests...................................................................................................................... 35
 4.2.1 Analysis of reading speed tests.......................................................................................... 35
 4.2.2 Analysis of reading comprehension tests...........................................................................36
 4.3 Analysis of the interview.............................................................................................................. 37
 4.4 Discussion of research question one.............................................................................................38
 4.5 Discussion of research question two............................................................................................ 39
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4.6 Discussion of research question three.......................................................................................... 40
Chapter Five Conclusion................................................................................................... 42
 5.1 Major findings...............................................................................................................................42
 5.1.1 Changes in students............................................................................................................42
 5.1.2 Changes in teachers............................................................................................................42
 5.2 Implication for teachers and students...........................................................................................43
 5.3 Limitations of the present research...............................................................................................44
 5.4 Suggestions for future research.................................................................................................... 44
References........................................................................................................................... 46
Appendix I Questionnaire of Reading(Pre-test)........................................................... 49
Appendix II Reading Speed Test (Pre-test)..................................................................... 50
Appendix III Reading Comprehension Test (Pre-test)...................................................52
Appendix IV Questionnaire of Reading (Post-test).........................................................56
Appendix V Reading Speed Test(Post-test)..................................................................... 57
Appendix VI Reading Comprehension Test (Post-test)..................................................59
Appendix VII Weekly Reading Report (For EC 2).........................................................63
Appendix VIII Weekly Reading Report (For EC1)........................................................ 64
Appendix IX List of Newspaper Websites....................................................................... 65
Appendix X Interview Outline..........................................................................................66
Acknowledgments...............................................................................................................67
The list of the research papers published by author.......................................................68
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Chapter One Introduction
This chapter consists of four sections. The first three sections are the introduction of the
research, which include the background, the significance and the purpose. The last section
introduces the organization of this thesis.
1.1 Background of the research
For most EFL students, reading is one of the most significant academic skills. Successful
language learning depends largely on reading ability, but how to improve learner’ reading
ability is still a long-standing problem which challenges many teachers and educators. It’s
universally acknowledged that one area of skill can be improved through repeated practice
and it holds true for English reading.
 A wealthy of studies demonstrate that authentic reading materials can boost
learners’ motivation and enhance reading ability. Due to its authenticity and suitability,
many scholars believe that reading newspapers and magazines is a valuable method to
advance students’ reading ability. Hence, exploring the effect of newspapers or magazines
on English reading has become a hot topic over the years. In China, some scholars have
also examined the characteristics and advantages of English newspapers or magazines.
Some even discussed the strategy of reading newspapers or magazines and explain the
operation of extensive reading approach, but only in theoretical level, empirical research is
relatively scant. Only a few studies discussed the relationships between reading practice
and reading achievement through interviews, questionnaires and experimental methods.
Most of the reading materials employed in these limited empirical studies are 21st Century
Newspaper and China Daily, which is a bit monotonous. With the advancement of science
and technology, the internet has made its way into people’s daily life, the resources on the
internet are affluent and can be easily shared between countries around the world, which
makes it hard to overlook the potential of these online materials in the field of language
learning.
 In light of the above facts, this thesis attempts to implement net-paper-based
extensive reading in senior high schools to prove its effectiveness in language learning and
especially in English reading teaching.
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1.2 Significance of the research
In a typical English reading class, teachers select the reading materials and assign reading
tasks for students to complete, students have little or no control over their own study. In
addition, most of the class time is spent on detailed explanation of words and grammar
rules. As a consequence, students lost their interest and confidence in English reading and
the development of their reading ability is hindered by such dull and ineffective method.
What’s more, students only care about scores while neglect the nurturing of reading ability
and reading habits.
In view of this, it is necessary for teachers to apply a more feasible and effective
method so as to change the current situation. Moreover, the purpose of education is not all
about the instillation of knowledge but also the fostering of knowledge application ability
and the exploration of one’s own potential.
1.3 Purpose of the research
In China, reading classes are mostly teacher-centered, which means teacher is the authority
in the classroom, he or she decides on reading materials and activities, while students have
no control over their own learning process. During reading, teachers elaborate on grammar
rules and language points, class time is largely devoted to learning the language instead of
using the language and the nurturing of reading ability is neglected. So it is no surprise to
find that the reading abilities of many senior high school students are far from satisfactory.
To solve this problem, a new approach is put forward. The researcher intends to
apply ER approach to the teaching of English reading among senior high schools in order
to examine whether it can change students’ attitudes towards reading and whether it is
more effective than the traditional approach (grammar translation method) in promoting
reading motivation and improving English reading ability. This research attempts to
address the three questions listed below:
Question 1:To what extent can net-paper-based extensive reading approach
improve the reading speed of senior high school students?
Question 2:To what extent can net-paper-based extensive reading approach
enhance reading comprehension of senior high school students ?
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Question 3:To what extent can net-paper-based extensive reading approach boost
the reading motivation of senior high school students?
1.4 Organization of the research
This thesis is made up of five chapters.
Chapter One encapsulates an introduction, which elaborates from four aspects:
research background, research significance, research purpose, and a brief introduction of
the organization of this thesis.
Chapter Two is literature review. This chapter encompasses five parts: a brief
review of reading, a review of extensive reading, the theoretical framework and relevant
studies of extensive reading abroad and at home, and a brief summary. The definition and
methods of reading are included in the first part. Part two consists of the characteristics,
advantages and goals of extensive reading. The research is based on two theories: Input
Hypothesis and Affective Filter Hypothesis. The fourth part illustrates relevant studies of
extensive reading abroad and at home, and at last, a brief summary is presented.
Chapter Three exhibits the research methodology, which presents research
questions, research participants, research instruments and specific procedures of the
experiment. The procedures of data collection are also included in this chapter.
Chapter Four displays data analysis and discussion. This chapter mainly presents
the analysis and discussion of the data which is collected in the tests, questionnaires and
the interviews.
Chapter five is the conclusion of the whole thesis. In this chapter, the major
findings and the pedagogical implications are discussed. Limitations of the present
research and some suggestions for future research are also proposed.
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Chapter Two Literature review
In this chapter, an elaboration of ER is presented from three aspects. The first section is a
brief review of reading, which includes the definition of reading and the methods of
reading. The second section is the theoretical framework of the ER approach. The third
section covers relevant studies of ER abroad and at home.
2.1 A brief review of reading
Before clarifying how to carry out the extensive reading approach in the teaching of
reading in senior high schools, the discussion begins first with a review of reading, which
covers the definition of reading and the methods of reading.
2.1.1 Definitions of reading
Reading is the most studied area of language pedagogy, evidenced by affluent studies on it
globally. In order to further study reading, it’s necessary to figure out what reading is first.
The concept of reading has been defined in various ways. For instance, Day and Bamford
(1998) define reading as the construction of meaning from the printed pages, which
encapsulates that the process of reading is a dynamic interaction between the readers and
the written words. Again, Nuttall (2002) maintains that reading is a process of finding
meaning. For Nuttall, the process of words recognition serves the function of obtaining
information.
For a considerable period of time, reading is regarded as a “receptive skill”. Until
recently, with the advancement of psycholinguistics, it becomes universally accepted that
reading involves the active interaction between human brain and the incoming information.
In other words, reading is not a passive, linear process of word recognition, but a
complex construct that involves the active participation of readers. Goodman (1967) once
described reading as “a psycholinguistic guessing game”, which involves interaction
between thoughts and printed words. In accordance with Goodman, Roy Harris (2000)
points out that the information we are going to find is not given in advance, but created in a
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specific communicative environment through the interaction between the reader and the
author.
From the above discussion, a conclusion can be drawn that reading is a positive
and fluent process of constructing or generating meaning, understanding written texts and
structural symbols.
2.1.2 Methods of reading
In second language or foreign language teaching, reading methods are generally divided
into intensive reading and extensive reading. The distinction was first made by the famous
British language teaching researcher Palmer in the 1920s and 1930s.
According to Palmer (1921), intensive reading means the word-for-word reading
and it involves the using of a dictionary at any time, in other words, it refers to the careful
reading of more difficult and shorter articles with the purpose of total understanding, hence,
it’s always linked to skill learning. However, intensive reading can not be regarded as
authentic reading, but text learning, it is usually practiced in class under the guidance of
the teacher. Compared with extensive reading, its reading speed is slower, but reading
comprehension is relatively deeper. On the contrary, extensive reading generally involves
the reading of a large number of materials so as to obtain global understanding. Put it
differently, extensive reading is about meaning rather than learning language points and
grammar rules.
 With the differences between intensive reading and extensive reading made clear,
it should be noted that they are not “two distinct methods of reading, but are interrelated
and overlapping” (Nuttall, 2002). Intensive reading and extensive reading are
complementary and are both necessary for improving learners’ reading ability: intensive
reading improves accuracy and extensive reading enhances fluency. Palmer (1964) holds
that both reading methods are necessary because the ultimate goal of reading is to
understand the text being read. It is worth noting that intensive reading is the predominant
approach in EFL reading instruction. The majority of EFL reading textbooks adopt the
intensive reading approach and rarely mention extensive reading (Aebersold & Field, 1997;
Anderson, 1999; Grabe & Stoller, 2002).
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2.2 A brief review of extensive reading
The term “extensive reading” does not always means the same thing in practices, therefore,
it’s necessary to begin the discussion by giving a range of definitions. ER was first
proposed by Harold Palmer (1921) in the language teaching field, who asserts that
extensive reading is “rapidly reading book after book where the reader focuses on meaning
instead of the language of the text.” Similarly, Carrell and Carson (1997) hold that
“extensive reading involves rapid reading of large quantities of texts for general
understanding while focusing on the meaning instead of the language”.
Another important aspect related to the definition of ER is students’ own choice
and pleasure in reading. Krashen (1985, 1989, 2004, n.d.) emphasized the importance of
“choice of one’s own in reading” and proposed Free Vocabulary Reading (FVR) which
means “read because you want to”. Later on, Aebersold and Field (1997) offered a
definition that focusing on both the quantity of reading and students’ choice: “extensive
reading is based on the belief that when students read large amount of materials for global
comprehension by their own choices, their ability to read will improve accordingly”.
ER has been given other names as well, for example, Michael West defines it
(cited by Day and Bamford, 1998) “supplementary reading”, Stephen Krashen calls it
“pleasure reading” or “free vocabulary reading”, while Day and Bamford (1998) and
others coined the term “sustained silent reading”.
From the above definitions, ER can be summarized as reading (a) large quantities
of material or texts; (b) for global understanding instead of details; (c) with the purpose of
obtaining pleasure.
2.2.1 Characteristics of extensive reading
To further clarify the dimensions of ER, Day and Bamford (1998) outlined ten
characteristics of extensive reading approach which are essential for successful ER projects.
The characteristics are listed below:
1) Students read a large amount of materials, both in and out of the reading
classroom.
Day and Bamford (2002) stress that one of the most crucial elements of ER is the
amount of time spent on reading. Hence, In order to achieve the benefits of ER and to
nurture a good reading habit, the number of materials read within the time limit should be
guaranteed, they suggest that students should try to read as much as possible.
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2) Students should be exposed to rich materials of various text types so that they
can be motivated to read in different ways and for different goals.
It’s suggested that to encourage the desire to read, students should be exposed to
various text types, for example, newspapers, magazines, texts that are general, specialized,
light or serious, etc.(Day and Bamford, 2002). Varied materials contribute to both reading
motivation and flexible approaches to reading, students are inspired to read for various
reasons and in different ways. (William, 1986).
3) Students have total control over the selection of reading materials and are
allowed to give up reading texts that failed to interest them.
The key to ER is self-selected reading materials. Students can choose the texts
that interest them best and they are given the freedom to stop reading materials that are too
easy, too difficult or boring (Hitosugi and Day, 2004; Day and Bamford, 2002 ).
4)The main goals of reading include acquiring pleasure, obtaining information,
and achieving general understanding. The fulfillment of these goals is determined by an
individual’s needs.
It’s recommended that in ER approach, learners should read like first-language
readers do. This sets ER apart from common classroom practices or reading for academic
purposes. With respect to reading outcome, the focus is mainly on reader’s personal
experience rather than achieving comprehension or gaining knowledge. (Day and Bamford,
2002).
5) Reading is its own reward.
Initially, Day and Bamford (1998) maintain that there should be no follow-up
exercises after reading, however, Hitosugi and Day (2004) adjusted the view by explaining
that although the goal of ER is to engage students in reading therefore they are not required
to answer comprehension questions, language teachers may still need to design some
follow-up activities for the following reasons:
to find out what the students have understood or experienced
to keep track of students’ reading progress
to supervise students’ attitude towards reading
6) The vocabulary and grammar of the texts are relatively easy for students, in
other words, the materials should be intelligible for students. During reading, it’s not advised to use dictionaries as the frequent pauses to look up words interfere with fluent
reading.
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It’s recommended by Day and Bamford (2002) that to achieve complete
comprehension, the language in the texts must be well within the learners’ linguistic
competence.
7) Reading is individual and silent.
Reading is supposed to be done at the student’s own rate, in and out of the
classroom, done when and where the student chooses. (Hitosugi and Day, 2004; Day and
Bamford, 2002).
8)As the reading materials are easy, students can read at a faster rate.
As the reading content is relatively easy, students can read faster than usual. The
use of dictionaries is not recommended, hence, they should ignore or guess from the
contexts when encountering difficult words. (Hitosugi and Day 2004; Day and Bamford
2002). Nuttall (1996) pointed out that reading speed, enjoyment of reading and reading
comprehension are closely related to one another. ER approach promotes the virtuous
circle of good readers: when students read faster, they can read more and understand better,
and all of these, in turn, will help them get more pleasure.
9)Teachers explain the goals of the ER program to students, demonstrate the
approaches, supervise the reading progress of each student, and direct students to make the
maxim use of the reading materials.
In view of the fact that most students are not accustomed to choosing reading
materials on their own, the practice of ER should be introduced by language teachers. They
can begin with giving a full account of the benefits of reading, for example, it contributes
to gains in vocabulary, grammar knowledge, writing ability and oral fluency. What’s more,
teachers should also note that there is no pressure for formal assessment, but follow-up
activities are necessary for keeping check of their reading progress.
10)The teacher sets an example for the students as a role model.
The teachers are required to read the same materials as students, so that they can
talk about how to be a reader with learners and offer some advice in term of the choice of
reading materials. (Hitosugi and Day 2004; Day and Bamford 2002).
2.2.2 Advantages of extensive reading
As an approach to language pedagogy, ER is universally hailed as useful, beneficial and
necessary, the advantages of ER have been widely acknowledged in a substantial body of
research. Here present some of them in six categories.
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Extensive reading promotes comprehension skills.
It’s universally approved that reading comprehension is a complex construct that involves a
set of processes. It’s not all about summarizing the main content of a text or answering
questions about details, it further involves applying various schemata to different texts. As
ER covers a large quantities of texts, it provides learners with practice on the application of
schemata and reading strategies. As measured by scores on standardized reading tests (e.g.,
Elley, 1991, 1992, 1998; Elley & Mangubhai, 1983) or cloze tests (Mason & Krashen,
1997), readers in all contexts who took part in ER programs scored as well as or better than
those who received only classroom instruction.
Extensive reading builds background knowledge.
Schema theory maintains that learners’ reading ability is determined by three kinds of
schemata: language, content and formal schemata. These schemata interact with the
language of the text being read, and finally make the text understood by a reader.
Classroom teachers can build readers’ language, content and formal schemata during the
pre-reading stage of intensive reading instruction. In contrast, a learner engaged in
extensive reading programs obtain the background knowledge “for free” (Smith, 1988).
What’s more, Day and Bamford (1998) noticed that the background knowledge or
schemata developed by ER can promote readers’ critical thinking abilities. Extensive
reading offers students the opportunity to “read broadly and deeply enough to achieve the
mass of background knowledge on which speculative thinking depends” (Day & Bamford,
1998).
Extensive reading develops automaticity.
It is universally accepted by linguists that fluent reading begins with “the lightning like,
automatic recognition of words” (Day & Bamford, 1998). Smith (2004) asserted that
“fluent readers are able to recognize at least 50,000 words on sight”. which is an
intimidating task even for L1 readers. There is no doubt that the task is even more daunting
for most L2 readers as they must master a large amount of vocabulary, have a good
command of morphology so as to recognize words automatically. According to Day and
Bamford (1998), “the most effective and easiest way is to read extensively”. In addition, a
wealth of research findings show that ER aids vocabulary growth which also lends support
to the automaticity theory as well (Horst, 2005; Nagy, Anderson, & Herman, 1987; Nagy &
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Herman, 1987; Nagy, Herman, & Anderson, 1985; Pichette, 2005; Pitts, White, & Krashen,
1989; Saragi, Nation, & Meister, 1978).
Extensive reading consolidates and increases vocabulary and grammar knowledge.
In ER programs, student are repeatedly exposed to naturally-occurring phrases and clauses,
the usages of lexical chunks and their spellings, and a variety of other features such as
paraphrasing, punctuation, and capitalization conventions. As a matter of fact, beyond
arguing that ER is conducive to language development, we would state the case more
strongly that some aspects of language can only be acquired through extensive and
repeated exposure to the language.
Extensive reading Improves production skills (speaking and especially writing).
As we discussed above, ER contributes to the development of various types of schemata,
it’s reasonable to assume that having a repertoire of tools at one’s disposal through ER is
also beneficial to L2 production skills. In terms of oral production, although reading does
not directly deal with the issue of pronunciation, having access to a large amount of
vocabulary can certainly facilitate both formal and informal interactions. In terms of
written production, reading provides content for writers to write about, linguistic tools with
which to state ideas, and rhetorical models to imitate from.
Extensive reading boosts students’ confidence and promotes motivation.
Scholars have reached a unanimous agreement that extensive reading (especially FVR) can
be extremely beneficial to students, it motivates them to read on their own in the future and
even for a lifetime and it boosts their confidence in using the language outside the
classroom (Yopp & Yopp, 2005).
For instance, in a large-scale L1 research, Ivey and Broaddus (2001) asserted that
more than 1700 Grade 6 students rated “free reading time” and “teacher reading aloud” as
their favorite language activities. In McQuillan’s (1994) survey of University L2 learners,
most of the participants strongly prefer extensive reading activities to grammar instruction.
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2.2.3 Goals of extensive reading
Goals of ER are summarized by Day and Bamford (1998) are listed below:
1) Learners will have a positive attitude toward English reading.
2) Learners will be more confident and motivated to read.
3) Learners will be able to read fluently without referring to the dictionaries.
4) Learners will enlarge their vocabulary.
5) Learners will be able to read with purposes in their mind.
6) Learners will be able to adjust reading rates according to their purposes.
7) Learners will be able to select reading materials according to their personal interests and
language competence.
The extent to which these goals will be accomplished depends partially on the
intensity and duration of the ER program. The more time allotted to the program, and the
more the students read, the greater the possibility that they will become efficient readers.
2.3 The theoretical framework of extensive reading
This section mainly displays two theories on which the ER approach is based, which
includes Krashen’s Input Hypothesis and Affective Filter Hypothesis.
2.3.1 Krashen’s Input Hypothesis
As a pioneer in the SLA field, Krashen proposed a series of SLA theories, which is known
as the Five Hypotheses, namely, Input, acquisition/learning, monitor, natural order, and
affective filter hypotheses, among which the Input Hypothesis is the core.
Krashen holds that language is learned by receiving “comprehensible input”,
hence, in L2 or EFL language teaching and learning field, input is considered as one of the
key elements.
In fact, comprehensible input is defined as the bit of language received by the
learner which contains grammatical structures that are slightly ahead of the current level of
the learners. Language containing structures a learner already knows serves no function in
language learning while language containing structures way ahead of the learner’s current
level is useless. Krashen defines the current proficiency level of a learner as “i” and the
next stage as “i+1”, only input containing “i+1” is ideal for language learning.
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Students progress along the natural order by understanding input which is
comprehensible to them. With the assistance of the context or extra-linguistic information,
students can gradually grasp language structures that they have not mastered previously.
That is, they move from their current level “i” to the next stage “i+1” by understanding
input containing “i+1”.
The optimal language input should meet the following standards: (1) The input
should be comprehensible because incomprehensible input is a waste of time. (2) Input
should be both interesting and relevant so that learners are more willing to obtain more
input; (3) Input should not be grammatically sequenced because the learner’s acquisition
follow the natural order; (4) The input should be sufficient, and sufficient language input is
the key to language acquisition.
As it’s known that in EFL context in China, to obtain a large amount of oral input
is unrealistic. And as learners have easier access to written materials, reading can serve as
the major source of comprehensible input. Online newspapers has the advantages not
enjoyed by other types of reading materials, it is rich in quantity and quality which can
satisfy different needs of learners, and is readily available as a result of the ubiquity of
internet technology. Moreover, it is authentic in the sense that it has not been adapted,
which makes internet newspapers more suitable as ER reading materials compared with
graded readers. Finally, students can choose from a variety of online newspapers according
to their own interests and linguistic competences, and thus acquiring a great amount of
comprehensible input, which will contribute to their English reading to a great extent. It’s
based on this belief that the research put forward the idea of implementing ER approach
into the teaching of English reading.
2.3.2 Affective Filter Hypothesis
Affective Filter Hypothesis is mainly concerned with how affective factors relate to the
language acquisition process. The notion of an Affective Filter was initially put forward by
Dulay and Burt (1977), and was in line with the theoretical studies done in the area of
affective variables and language acquisition.
Numerous researches have confirmed that a host of affective factors are closely
associated with successful language acquisition (Krashen, 1981).
Affective Filter Hypothesis elaborates on the connections between affective
factors and success in second language acquisition by assuming that language learners vary
in terms of the levels of their affective filters. Learners who hold negative attitudes toward
12
second language learning tend to avoid language input, and thus exhibiting a high level of
affective filter, in which case, even if they have received sufficient language input, it is
likely to be blocked by certain area of the brain which is in charge of language acquisition.
In contrast, those with attitudes more favorable to second language acquisition will not
only seek more input, but they will also have a lower level of affective filter, namely, they
tend to be more open to the input. (Stevick,1976).
Therefore, a low level of affective filter is favorable to language learning. Krashen
(1982) maintains that there are two factors preventing the lowering of the affective filter.
The first is not allowing for a silent period, which means expecting the student to speak
before they have received an adequate amount of comprehensible input. The second is
correcting their errors too early.
But the theory further expounds that the barriers can be reduced by arousing
interest through providing a low anxiety environment and boosting the learner’s confidence.
Language acquisition occurs in environments where the learners have low level of anxiety
and enough confidence to use the target language. Extensive reading offers learners with
this kind of environment in which they can read independently at any time without
pressure. In this relaxing environment, learners’ affective filter can be reduced and
comprehensible input can be increased greatly.
2.4 Relevant studies of extensive reading abroad
Numerous studies examining the effect of ER on English learning both in EFL and ESL
contexts demonstrate that ER exerts positive impact on almost every aspect of language
acquisition.
Gains in vocabulary, reading proficiency and other skills like listening, writing
can all be enhanced by ER. In addition, affective factors such as attitude and motivation
can be aroused by ER as well.
To begin with, as it’s embedded in “learn to read by reading”, there exist close
relationships between extensive reading and reading ability. A number of studies prove that
learners participated in ER are more likely to be efficient readers in the target language.
Learners who read extensively can not only progress in reading comprehension, but also
gain improvement in reading rates and reading strategies.
Robb and Susser (1989) conducted an empirical research to compare ER and IR
on freshmen in a university of Japan which lasted for more than two semesters. The
participants were categorized into ER and IR group. They took pretest and post-test on
13
reading rate respectively before and after the experiment, and the results showed that the
ER group improved the reading rate more significantly compared with the IR group.
 Mason and Krashen (1997) carried out three experiments in universities of Japan.
In the first one, the experimental group of EFL students who did extensive reading
practices for a semester gained greater progress on a cloze test than the control group who
were traditionally taught. In experiment two, the same effect was proved at a prestigious
university and a two-year college, and in experiment three, the researcher took writing
summary after ER into consideration and categorized the participants into three groups, at
last, the scores of the three groups demonstrate that the extensive readers who wrote
summary in English outperformed the group with cloze exercises, and those who wrote
summary in Japanese also made greater progress than the cloze exercises group, but not
significant. However, the group who wrote summary in Japanese progressed the greatest in
writing and reading rate.
 Research on the positive effects of ER on reading motivation and attitude are also
affluent. A great number of studies showed that attitudinal changes occurred toward
English reading and how the learners became motivated in reading after ER treatment.
Elley (1991) asserted that learners developed “very positive attitudes toward books as they
raised their literacy levels in English.”
 Due to the shortage of L2 ER studies on individuals, Constantino (1994)
administered a case study of five readers, including three pleasure readers and two
non-pleasure readers to investigate their changes of motivation through ER. The pleasure
readers were required to read extensively according to their personal interests without
follow-up exercises, while the non-pleasure readers were asked to read certain texts and
answer comprehension questions. The findings displayed that the motivation and
confidence of the pleasure readers both improved significantly, but this effect has not been
found in non-pleasure readers.
 Nishino (2007) also carried out a case study with the duration of two and a half
years on two Japanese middle school students. During the experiment, the two students
took regular tests and were interviewed four times, and their behavior was observed.
Research findings indicated that both of the two participants have applied various reading
strategies while reading and their reading motivation have been enhanced as they read with
increasing fluency. Moreover, the observation of reading behavior demonstrated significant
individual differences in applying reading strategies.
Apart from enhancing reading proficiency and boosting reading motivation, a
large quantity of studies show that students who engaged in ER also make great progress in
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general language proficiency. For instance, Yurika Iwahori (2008) carried out a study with
33 second-year high school students in Japan which lasted for seven weeks, the students
were required to read 28 graded readers within seven weeks and were exposed to 137
books. They were demanded to take a pretest and a post-test on reading rate and general
language proficiency. The data of test scores were analyzed and the results indicated that
ER was effective in improving students’ reading rate and general language proficiency.
Elley and Mangubhai (1983) conducted a research in rural primary schools of
Fujian. There were an experimental group and a control group. 380 students of grade four
and five consisted of the experimental group and they participated in a programme which
provided them with 250 story books in English to read. The control group was composed
of 234 students who only received formal English teaching without ER activities. Results
of the post-test indicated that the group exposed to story books have made significant
improvement in reading and listening comprehension at almost twice the rate of the control
group, and after the treatment, their general language ability improved greatly.
Writing ability of students both in primary school and universities is also affected
by extensive reading. Hafiz and Tudor (1990) carried out a research in Pakistan, where
English is taught as a second language. In this research, a 90-hour extensive reading
programme with graded readers as reading materials was conducted among a group of 25
readers from primary school. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there
was significant improvement in fluency and accuracy of writing, and the results turned out
to be positive. Then he expounded the reason why ER contributes to writing ability was
that through extensive reading, various linguistic models could be built in the learners’
mind which then, “by a process of repeated learning, could be assimilated and incorporated
into learners’ active L2 repertoire.”
Hafiz and Tudor (1989) conducted a similar study in Leeds, UK, while working
with ESL learners and discovered that a sixty-hour ER programme which adopted
simplified readers as reading materials produced gains in both reading and writing ability.
Previous studies also evidenced that ER can enlarge vocabulary. For example, Day,
Omura and Hiramatsu (1991). Horst, Cobb and Meara (1998) Rott(1999). What’s more,
there are still a great amount of studies examining the influence of ER on other aspects of
language acquisition in various contexts, and they all contribute to the development of ER.
15
Among all the reading materials for ER, graded readers are the most researched
ones, therefore, it’s necessary to make a brief introduction of graded readers or adapted
reading materials.
 When graded readers and adapted reading materials were initially introduced into
extensive reading teaching, some scholars noticed the demerits of these unauthentic readers
and stressed the significance of using authentic reading materials in extensive reading.
John Honeyfield (1977) considered simplified texts as less useful in preparing students to
learn to read in the real world and thus should not be seen as authentic reading.
 Francoise Grellet (1981) also holds that it is important to use authentic reading
materials whenever possible. Three reasons can account for this view. First of all, the
simplification of a text might in turn increase its difficulty as the simplifying process has
already changed the original rhetorical structures of the texts. Second, as he says, engaging
students in reading authentic texts from the beginning does not mean a more difficult task.
Third, authentic texts present their original texts, including the wording, layout and
accompanying illustrates, thus facilitating the conveying of the message to the reader and
arousing readers’ interest.
 But what is the definition of authentic reading materials? According to Janet
Swaffar (1985) the criterion for authentic reading material is to see whether there is
communication between the author and the audience. She gives a full account of her view
as the following: “In foreign language classroom, an authentic text is one whose primary
intention is to convey meaning, put it differently, such a text can be one that is written for
native speakers of a language to be read by other native speakers, or it can be a text
intended for language learners. The key point here is not for whom it is written but that it
performs the function of authentic communicating.”
 Thus, In contexts where English is learned as a second or foreign language, it is of
great significance to expose students to authentic reading materials. Melvin and Stout
(1987) employed authentic materials in their regular English instruction by providing
authentic materials about the culture of English-speaking countries and found improvement
in motivation and confidence among students at the end of the semester.
 Matthew (1997) carried out an experiment to investigate the impact of authentic
materials on reading motivation. Two classes of beginner level participated in this
experiment: the experimental group employs authentic materials and the control group uses
non-authentic materials. The behaviors of students were closely observed and a
questionnaire was delivered after the treatment. Results displayed that the motivation of
the experimental group increased to a great extent.
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Authentic materials are both natural and practical, and are readily available in
daily life. They exist in various forms, such as newspaper articles, magazines, brochures,
ads and other forms. As the mainstream of authentic materials, newspapers and magazines
were employed by many educators and teachers. Rafael Olivares (1993) demonstrated the
merits of applying newspapers to assist students in enhancing language proficiency in ESL
context. She proposed that students should be exposed to newspapers as reading
newspapers is about acquiring information that could not be obtained from textbooks. With
the merits such as inexpensive and interesting content, newspapers should be given more
prominence in language teaching field. Kenji Kitao (1997) is a pioneer in the field of EFL,
he regards it beneficial for students to read English newspapers. In his article Teaching
English through Newspapers, he put forward a teaching method which adopted newspapers
as reading materials for college ESL learners. The method began with engaging students in
reading newspaper, then specific reading strategies are outlined: constant reading; reading
short articles; reading without using a dictionary; understanding the article as a whole and
comparing Japanese and English versions.
The above studies all proved the feasibility of applying newspaper as ER reading
materials. Nevertheless, in EFL context like China, the quantity of English newspaper is
limited and the content is mostly outdated. Therefore, to use the limited newspapers as ER
reading materials is neither feasible nor suitable.
Due to the rapid development of internet technology, a large amount of English
newspapers is easily accessible and updated constantly on the internet, which makes the
net-paper-based ER programs possible. Therefore, many scholars advocate the introduction
of English materials on the internet into language teaching. Klaus Brandl (2002) examined
the approach of incorporating internet-based reading materials into foreign language
curriculum, in which, the traditional teacher-centered approach is replaced by
student-centered approach. This article mainly focusing on the application of authentic
materials available on the internet. And three different approaches are implemented:
teacher-centered lessons, teacher-facilitated lessons and learner-centered lessons. The three
approaches varies in learning resources, learning tasks and the degree of participation of
teacher and students in the class. In addition, the research pointed out that the design of
internet-based lessons is determined by the teaching approaches and the expertise of the
teacher and the language proficiency levels of students.
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2.5 Relevant studies of extensive reading at home
As a pedagogical approach, ER is conducive to every aspect of language acquisition,
which also holds true in EFL context in China. Sheu (2003) carried out a research among
junior high school students who were at beginner level in Taiwan. There were two
experimental groups, one exposed to graded readers and the other to books for native
children and one control group. All the three groups took a pretest and a post-test of
reading rate and the results showed significant improvements among all the three groups
and the experimental group which were exposed to book written for native children made
the greatest progress, followed by experimental group which were exposed to graded
readers.
In Lai (1991), it was proved that a self-designed ER program could provide
optimal comprehensible input. Through matching students’ language competences with the
linguistic difficulty levels of graded readers, 719 participants were exposed to
comprehensible input. Each week, one lesson is added for exchanging readers and the
experimental subjects are required to answer multiple choice questions, thereby
receiving extra language input. Results showed that there were gains in reading
comprehension, reading speed and writing.
In an experiment of Lai (1993), 226 secondary school students from Hong Kong
were divided into three groups and were exposed to graded readers in large amount for
four weeks. Then, all the participants took the pre-test and post-test, the results
demonstrated that learners’ reading comprehension, reading rate and writing ability
improved greatly.
 ER was introduced into Chinese university curriculum in the late 1980s, since
then it has been paid more and more attention by scholars, but most of them focus on
exploring efficient reading strategies while giving secondary consideration on selecting
authentic materials, let alone adopting English newspapers as reading materials in English
reading teaching. Hence, there was relatively scant research on adopting English
newspapers as extensive reading materials in China, and the exploration of internet-based
ER teaching is even rarer.
 Therefore, choosing internet-based newspapers as ER reading materials in the
teaching of reading can bridge the gap in language teaching field and contribute to
language pedagogy.
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2.6 Summary
To sum up, the ER approach is widely adopted and acknowledged both at home and abroad.
With the help of the researchers, students realized the importance of English reading and
the fostering of reading ability and more importantly, they have gained confidence and
motivation in reading after those experiments and improved their overall reading ability.
Based on what has been discussed above, this present research intends to testify whether
the ER approach can contribute to senior high school students’ reading ability and enhance
their motivation in English reading.
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Chapter Three Research methodology
The present research is an empirical research focusing on the effect of the ER approach in
senior high schools in China. The purpose of this research is to test whether ER approach
can contribute to students’ reading ability and boost their motivation as well as promoting
other areas of skills. Research questions, subjects, instruments, and the procedures and data
collection are covered in this chapter.
3.1 Research questions
As can be seen from the above discussions, ER approach has been gaining popularity
among researchers, nevertheless, most of these ER studies are carried out in L1 or L2
learning contexts, the effect of ER in EFL context in China is paid little attention.
Therefore, whether ER is applicable to Chinese EFL learners remains to be explored. In
addition, the majority of previous studies use graded readers which lack authenticity, there
is still a shortage of research which focuses on employing English materials on the internet
as ER materials. Hence, this study attempts to adopt online newspapers and magazines as
ER reading materials in senior high schools, in order to examine whether it can promote
the reading ability of senior high school EFL learners. The reading ability involved in this
study is measured from three aspects: reading speed, reading comprehension and reading
motivation. On this basis, three research questions are put forward and presented as
follows:
Question 1:To what extent can net-paper-based extensive reading approach
improve the reading speed of senior high school students?
Question 2:To what extent can net-paper-based extensive reading approach
enhance reading comprehension of senior high school students?
Question 3:To what extent can net-paper-based extensive reading approach
boost the reading motivation of senior high school students?
3.2 Research participants
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The participants in this experiment are senior high school students who are selected from
three parallel classes in No.3 Senior High School in Jianchang County, Liaoning province.
There are altogether 170 participants whose ages ranging from 16 to 18. Their learning
circumstances and language proficiency levels are approximately the same. The
participants are divided into three groups according to whether they had extracurricular ER
tasks and teacher instruction, and the three classes are named as experimental class one,
experimental class two and control class respectively, (hereinafter referred to as EC1, EC2,
and CC.) There are 58 students in EC1 who are required to read online newspapers
extensively after class under the instruction of the teacher, 57 students are in EC2 who are
asked to read online newspapers extensively after class without the instruction of the
teacher, and the rest of the 55 students in CC only received regular EFL classroom
instruction and without any extracurricular ER tasks or teacher instruction. Each reading
lesson lasts for 40 minutes. All of the students who participated in this experiment are
taught by the same teacher.
3.3 Research instruments
Three instruments are applied in this research to ensure the smooth implementation of the
ER approach in English reading teaching. The three instruments are presented below:
3.3.1 Questionnaires
Two questionnaires are employed in the treatment as pre and post-questionaire—Mori’s
(2002) reading motivation questionnaire. The two questionnaires were basically the same,
but an extra item was added to the pre-questionnaire to investigate the reading habits of the
subjects, for the purpose of ruling out students who have the habit of reading online
newspapers routinely to ensure the effectiveness of the experiment.
The questionnaire is a 30-item five-point Likert questionnaire, 26 items in this
questionnaire have been proved to be valid with the Cronbach coefficient of .93. These two
questionnaires are translated into Chinese for clear understanding. At the start of the
experiment, the pre-questionnaire (see Appendix I) will be delivered to each student of the
three classes so as to examine the attitude and motivation of the students towards English
reading. It consists of 31 items, which can be divided into four dimensions: intrinsic value
of reading, extrinsic utility value of reading, the importance of reading, and efficacy of
reading. The post-questionnaire(see Appendix IV) will be provided for all the three classes
21
at the end of the treatment and it is composed of 30 items, for the purpose of examining
whether the students’ attitude and motivation toward English reading have changed.
A five-point scale of Likert was adopted to all the items in the questionnaire: “5”
indicates “strongly agree”, “4” indicates “agree”, “3” indicates “neutrality”, “2” indicates
“disagree”, “1” indicates “strongly disagree”.
3.3.2 Tests
The tests are composed of two sets of test papers, a reading speed test and a reading
comprehension test, all the three classes took the tests twice as pretest and post-test
respectively. In order to test reading speed, the researcher designed two tests of
approximately the same difficulty level, which were used for pre and post tests(see
Appendixes II and V). The two reading speed tests both consist one long passage extracted
form the books of Oxford Bookworm Series, which are well within the linguistic
competence of senior high school students, so that the readability and validity of the texts
are guaranteed. At the same time, the two sets of reading comprehension tests both consist
of two sections, namely, multiple choice questions, and a cloze exercise. The first section
contains two passages and follow-up exercises and the second section includes a passage
and follow-up cloze exercises, which are all chosen from the reading sections of College
Entrance Examination(see Appendixes III and VI). The selection of these articles depends
on the researcher’s personal interests and text length.
 The specific method of measurement of reading speed is that the teacher
distributes reading materials and requires students to read at a comfortable rate without
stress. Five minutes later the teacher asks them to stop and requires the students to draw a
mark at where they have finished and handed it in, and then the researcher will calculate
the reading speed by dividing the words being read by five.
 The purpose of the reading comprehension pre-test is to verify whether the
subjects’ reading abilities are approximately on the same level. As for the pre-test, each
student from all of the three classes is required to finish the same set of test paper within
the time limit of 30 minutes. Another set of test paper will be administered as post-test at
the end of the semester. The aim of the post-test is to investigate whether the reading
abilities of students have improved.
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3.3.3 Interviews
A semi-structured interview is a complementary tool for this experiment(see Appendix X).
At the end of the experiment, 12 students selected from EC1 and EC2 will be interviewed
face-to-face by the researcher. During the interview, each student will be asked some
questions and the answers will be noted down briefly. The purpose of these interviews is to
further examine students’ attitude toward the extensive reading materials and to find out
their personal views on the extensive reading approach.
3.3.4 SPSS software
SPSS 20.0 (Statistical Package for Social Science) is a commonly used computer software,
which is employed for processing the data collected in the experiment for analysis.
3.4 Research procedures
The experiment lasted for about 18 weeks (a semester), from September 2020 to December
2020, and it could be divided into three phases.
Phase one is composed of two pre-tests and a pre-questionnaire. Students from all
the three classes were required to take a reading speed test and a reading comprehension
test at the start of the experiment. The reading speed is measured in an easy way, namely,
students are asked to read the passage at a comfortable rate and the teacher will keep the
time, when the time is up, students need to stop reading and draw a mark on the paper to
indicate how much content has been covered, and then their reading speeds can be
calculated by dividing the words covered by the time. The items of the reading
comprehension test were all extracted from College Entrance Examination and were the
same among the three classes. The students need to complete the test within 30 minutes
and the results of the two tests were stored as pre-test scores. The pre-questionnaire was
delivered to students from the three classes as well, and the results were filed for further
analysis.
The second phase lasted for about 14 weeks and the detailed procedures of the
experiment were implemented during this period, the procedures will be displayed
thoroughly in the next chapter.
23
The third phase continued for the last two weeks, which includes two post-tests, a
post-questionnaire and an interview. Two post-tests were administered to all the students
from the three classes at the end of the experiment, a reading speed and a reading
comprehension test. The reading speed is measured by words per minute. All the items of
the reading comprehension test were the same, and all the students were asked to finish it
in 30 minutes. The test score of each student was stored and the data were used as post-test
scores. After post-test, the post-questionnaire was delivered to all the students in the three
classes. The researcher filed the data for later analysis, at last, 12 students were selected to
be interviewed among the two experimental classes randomly. Students were required to
answer several questions and their answers were noted down briefly.
3.4.1 Materials for the treatment
Different teaching approaches are adopted in the three classes, in EC1, an approach which
combined online extensive reading and teacher instruction is applied, in EC2, online
extensive reading without teacher instruction approach is implemented, while CC only
received regular EFL classroom instruction. To ensure the successful implementation of the
three teaching methods, some materials are needed and presented as follows.
3.4.1.1Reading materials
The reading materials of this research are mainly original English articles from online
newspapers and periodicals. Students can choose online articles to read freely according to
their interests and language proficiency levels. In order to cut down students’ searching
time and arouse their interests, the researcher provided them with a list of websites from
world-renowned newspapers such as the Daily Mail, Washington Post, Reader ’s Digest
(see appendix IX ). In this way, online newspaper reading will be easier and more
interesting.
At the same time, given the fact that the majority of the participants don’t have
access to personal computers, and some students have limited access to the internet. The
researcher has searched for 20-30 articles in advance and sent them to two public e-mail
boxes of EC1 and EC2 respectively, therefore, students who don’t have access to the
internet can choose to print out their favorite articles for daily reading. Besides providing
weekly reading materials to EC1 and EC2, the researcher can also monitor the progress of
24
the experiment and make adjustments in time.
3.4.1.2 Weekly reading reports
Weekly reading reports are used as a means of supervision. The reading report model
employed in this study is adapted from the Bamford 1984 version. It mainly consists of
three sections: personal information, weekly reading table and a short book review, and the
reading reports of EC1 and EC2 are slightly different. (see appendixes VII and VIII ). In
the personal information section, students need to fill in their names and classes, the
weekly reading table contains three columns: date, newspaper title, article title, for the
purpose of monitoring students’ reading progress during the week. In terms of reading
quantity, different students have different language proficiency levels and requirements for
weekly reading quantity, so there is no fixed requirement. Therefore, on the basis of
referring to previous studies and in accordance with the principle of “reading as much as
possible”, the researcher demands students to read at least 14 articles a week, and each
article should contain no less than 300 words. Finally, in the book review section, students
are asked to write a short review of no less than 100 words on one of their favorite articles.
3.4.1.3 Teacher instruction
In EC1, in addition to extensive reading of online newspaper articles and weekly reading
reports, students also received 20 minutes of ER instruction, mainly by means of the PPT.
According to Carrell (1985), content and background knowledge can also affect reading
comprehension, training students to identify the structural characteristics of various text
types can facilitate information recalling.
PPTs used in this study are designed by the researcher according to the stylistic
features of different text types. The teaching order is shown in Table 3.1. Each Wednesday,
the teacher introduces the content of the PPT to EC1 during the first half of the class, and
send the PPT to public e-mail boxes of EC1 and EC2 respectively.
Table 3.1 The Teaching Order of the PPTs
Topic 1 Essential Reading Skills Topic 7 English Prose
Topic 2 English News Topic 8 English Poems
Topic 3 English Expository Writing Topic 9 English Film Dialogues
Topic 4 English Short Novels Topic 10 English Speeches
Topic 5 English Advertisement Topic 11 English Biography
Topic 6 English Editorial Topic 12 Argumentative Writing
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3.4.2 The teaching procedures in the experimental class one
Based on the characteristics and the theoretical framework of the ER approach discussed in
Chapter Two, the ER approach employed in the English reading teaching of EC1 operates
this way.
During each English class on Wednesday, students in EC1 will first receive ER
instruction for approximately 20 minutes, usually a PPT with introduction of ER and the
stylistic structures of different text types. After each English class, the PPT will be sent to
the public e-mail box of the class for students to review. Then each student is asked to read
at least two online newspaper articles and fill in the weekly reading report after class, and
submit it in English class the next Wednesday.
3.4.3 The teaching procedures in the experimental class two
Students in EC2 received no teacher instruction on ER, but each week, a PPT on ER will
be sent to the public e-mail box of the class for students to read. They were only required
to read online newspaper articles extensively and filled in the weekly reading report and
handed it in the next Wednesday for the same period of 18 weeks.
3.4.4 The teaching procedures in the control class
During the 18 weeks, apart from regular EFL classroom instruction, students of the CC
received neither teacher instruction nor any extracurricular extensive reading tasks.
3.4.5 A sample lesson in the experimental class one
Background information:
Students: 58 second-year senior high school students
Lesson duration: 20 minutes
Teaching content: an introduction of English advertisement
Teaching aids: PPT, computer, blackboard, etc.
Teaching procedures: (3 steps)
Step 1: Lead-in (3 minutes)
26
Teacher greeted the students and then went on saying: “Today I will introduce something
interesting to you. Please look at the screen. What do you see?”(Teacher showed some
pictures of advertisements). And let students answer.
Step 2:Presentation (13 minutes)
Then the teacher went on: “We see that in our daily life, advertisements are everywhere,
have you ever noticed them? And do you know the features of advertisements? No? Never
mind, we will learn about advertisements in today’s lesson.” The teacher then showed the
pictures which illustrated the characteristics of advertisements and provided necessary
instructions.
27
Step 3: Summary (4 minutes)
Teacher summarized the main content of the lesson:“Today we have learned about the
features of advertisements and I hope anyone who is interested in it can find more about it
after class and read more articles about advertisements. Don’t forget to fill out your weekly
reading report and hand it in the next week.”
3.5 Data collection
In this section, three research methods, including questionnaire, pencil-and-paper tests and
interview, were implemented to testify the impact of ER on students’ reading ability, as
well as the impact of ER on the reading interest and motivation of students in senior high
schools. Data from the questionnaires, tests and interviews were all stored for analysis.
First, a total of 170 second-year senior high school students were delivered two
questionnaires before and after the experiment.
28
Second, two sets of test papers were administered to all the students before and
after the experiment.
Lastly, 12 students were chosen as the subjects of the interviews. In comparison
with the above-mentioned research instruments, interviews are more casual and thus can be
used as a supplementary tool. As the interview is semi-structured, the researcher can make
some adjustments to the questions according to the circumstances.