论文范文:石油机械类论文摘要英译的研究

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 09:59
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
论文是表现科学研究成果的重要形式,而摘要是石油机械类期刊论文的重要 组成部分,它不仅是读者快速了解文章研究背景、方法与成果的最佳途径,也是 计算机检索时可直接利用的
论文是表现科学研究成果的重要形式,而摘要是石油机械类期刊论文的重要
组成部分,它不仅是读者快速了解文章研究背景、方法与成果的最佳途径,也是
计算机检索时可直接利用的语料来源,为学术的交流和进步起到了重要作用。然
而,目前国内外关于石油机械论文摘要英译的研究仍然较少。
本文采用文献资料法,对 100 篇高被引期刊的石油机械论文摘要进行了定量
研究,从词汇、句法、语篇三个方面进行了分析,并对其译文中存在的问题进行
了分类。研究结果表明:(1)我国学术期刊的英文摘要仍存时态、标点错误、
内容要素不完整等问题。(2)中文写作者在写作英文摘要时仍以使用被动句为
主,但第一人称和主动语态的使用也在逐渐增多。(3)目前,在此类非文学翻
译的翻译实践中,主要受到目的论和功能对等理论的影响。(4)中文写作者更
偏好使用三语步模式。
在此基础上,做出了以下建议:(1)译者应提高自己的综合水平,充分了
解摘要相关的国家标准的和石油机械领域的术语,明确摘要翻译的目的、目标读
者及其文化背景和行业背景,以符合目的语使用者的思维习惯和表达方式,同时
避免时态、标点等常见错误。(2)译者应注意论文结构的完整性和语态的使用,
使文本中的各要素均匀分布,并使用多种连词,尽量符合国际标准。(3)在句
法方面,译者可以增加主动语态的使用,选择正确的时态,增加现在进行时和过
去完成时的使用频率。
本研究能够帮助译者在跨文化、跨学科交际中对于专业领域的翻译有更深层
次的认识,提高翻译的准确性,提高国际期刊对该领域论文的检索量,有助于提
高石油机械论文摘要的翻译质量和标准化水平。
关键词:英译;石油机械论文;摘要
论文类型:应用研究
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................1
1.1 Research Background........................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Research Questions............................................................................................................2
1.3 Purposes and Significance of the Research....................................................................... 3
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................. 5
2.1 Definition and Requirements of Chinese and English Abstracts.......................................5
2.2 Research on Abstract by Foreign Scholars........................................................................ 6
2.3 Research on Abstract by Domestic Scholars..................................................................... 8
2.4 Previous Studies.................................................................................................................9
2.4.1 Multidimensional Research Content...........................................................................9
2.4.2 Diversified Theoretical Perspectives........................................................................ 10
2.4.3 Diversity of Research Methods.................................................................................11
CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN....................................................................................13
3.1 Research Tools.................................................................................................................13
3.1.1 Source of Corpus.......................................................................................................13
3.1.2 Document Conversion Tool......................................................................................13
3.1.3 Corpus Tool.............................................................................................................. 13
3.2 Corpus Processing............................................................................................................14
3.3 Research Methods............................................................................................................14
CHAPTER IV DISCUSSIONS AND RESULTS.................................................................. 15
4.1 General Description......................................................................................................... 15
4.2 Textual Structure..............................................................................................................16
 4.2.1 Generic Structure...................................................................................................... 16
 4.2.2 Translation of the Marked Words and Each Step..................................................... 23
 4.2.3 Cohesion in Discourse.............................................................................................. 24
 4.2.4 Punctuation............................................................................................................... 27
4.3 Syntactic Features............................................................................................................ 27
 4.3.1 Tenses....................................................................................................................... 28
 4.3.2 Voices....................................................................................................................... 30
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4.3.3 Personal Pronouns.....................................................................................................32
4.4 Lexical Features...............................................................................................................34
4.4.1 Modal Verbs..............................................................................................................34
4.4.2 Terminalization.........................................................................................................35
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION................................................................................................38
5.1 Major Findings.................................................................................................................38
5.2 Suggestions...................................................................................................................... 39
5.3 Limitations....................................................................................................................... 40
BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................................................................41
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background
Academic paper is an important expression of scientific research, and abstract is
an important part of petroleum machinery academic papers. An abstract usually
includes research background, method and conclusion of the article. According to the
International Organization for Standardization ISO 214-1976(E), abstract signifies an
abbreviated, accurate representation of the contents of a document, without added
interpretation or criticism and without distinction as to who wrote the abstract.
Abstracts are not only the best way for readers to grasp the core information of an
article, but also the directly source in the retrieval. The quality of academic paper’s
abstract can affect the citations and downloads of an academic paper, and abstract
plays a very important role in the academic exchanges of related industries. At present,
most petroleum machinery core journals require authors to provide English abstracts,
and most Chinese authors are more used to translating Chinese abstracts into English
than writing English abstracts directly. However, Chinese and English belong to two
different language families, and the translation of petroleum machinery English is
highly professional, and there are many difficulties in the translation practice.
What strategies should be followed in translation? What problems and mistakes
exist in translation? How to solve this questions and improve the quality of English
abstract? Currently, there are no specific requirements and rules to guide us in these
translations, and a C-E translation of abstract is more than a word-to-word or even
sentence-to-sentence translation. English abstract should follow the habit and culture
of target readers, and has its own characteristics. Before the translation, we should
firstly consider the language circumstance of target readers, including their reading
habit, reading preference, reading methods etc. Secondly, we should read the whole
text to understand the main meaning and information of the article. Then we find out
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necessary information and arrange the abstract more clearly and logical.
At present, there are very few studies on the C-E translation of abstract in
petroleum machinery, and few multi-angle and multi-level studies, either. From the
perspective of the research, there are rare corpora of petroleum machinery, not to
mention researches based on both parallel and comparable corpora. Also, there is a
lack of systemic and professional research of abstract in petroleum machinery.
This paper is composed of six chapters, the first chapter is the introduction, which
mainly introduces the research background, research questions, research methods,
significance and innovation. The second chapter is a review of the research on the C-E
translation of abstracts, and expounds the definition, function of abstract and the
requirements for abstract in the relevant domestic standards, and summarizes the
relevant achievements, research status and current research direction of C-E translation
of abstracts at home and abroad. The third chapter discusses the research design, the
research tools and methods. The fourth chapter analyzes and discusses the collected
samples, studies them from the aspects of step, syntax, text, etc., and summarizes the
translation errors. The fifth chapter is the conclusion of the whole paper, including the
major findings and limitations of this paper, as well as some suggestions.
1.2 Research Questions
This paper analyzes the abstract of petroleum machinery academic papers, which
is collected of Chinese and English abstracts of petroleum machinery academic papers
in recent five years. Samples in this paper are collected from some authoritative
journals such as Petroleum Drilling Techniques, China petroleum machinery, Journal
of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Science). This paper analyzes the
stylistic features of this text types, summarizes the characteristics and commonness of
English translation of the text, and discusses its translation skills and strategies
according to samples, so as to provide a reference for the translation of relevant texts
in the future, and help translators have a deeper understanding of professional
translation in cross-cultural and interdisciplinary communication, and improve the
accuracy of translation, and thus improve the retrieval of papers in international
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
journals.
1.3 Purposes and Significance of the Research
This paper studies 100 abstracts of papers published on petroleum machinery
core journals based on the the construction of bilingual corpus. This study is expected
to give a guidance to the translation of petroleum machinery abstracts in journals and
makes some contribution to the standardization of the writing of petroleum machinery
English abstracts. It is also expected to provide some practical value and significance
for application of the science and technology journals’ translation.
The research helps to improve the translation quality and standardization of
petroleum machinery abstracts by summarizing the translation strategies, techniques
and methods of this kind of text, and offers certain reference guidance and significance
for the translation of texts in related fields and the translation of scientific and
technological academic paper abstracts.
The research is helpful to improve the writing quality of English abstracts of
domestic scientific research workers, so as to improve the translation quality of
petroleum machinery texts and the total quality of scientific and technological papers.
It is also conducive to the collection of petroleum machinery articles by international
retrieval agencies, promotes international academic exchanges, and maintain the
innovation of academic research with the times and the originality of opinions.
At present, there are few researches focusing on the C-E translation of petroleum
machinery abstracts, and the research field is relatively blank. When taking a review of
existing studies, there is still a lack of systematic research on abstracts from domestic
and aboard. Most researchers have not summarized the research on petroleum
machinery abstracts from the micro-feature and macro-structure of the text, and have
less discussion on the principles and strategies of C-E translation of petroleum
machinery abstracts.
This paper analyzes the C-E translation of petroleum machinery abstracts from a
perspective of vocabulary, syntax and text on the macro and micro levels, studies the
stylistic style of sci-tech abstract texts, probes into their applicable guiding theories,
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translation strategies and translation techniques, and discusses their translation features
and commonalities, text paradigms and overall evaluation criteria.
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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition and Requirements of Chinese and English Abstracts
Abstract is a brief and accurate description of the content of a paper (ANSI,
1979:1). In a paper, it usually follows the title and author, and precedes the key words.
Abstract is the inevitable result of the continuous improvement of the quantity and
quality of academic papers. In the 1920s, the first abstract was published in Physical
Review. In the 1950s, the abstract began to be widely used as a part of the paper. The
emergence of abstract is the inevitable result of the increasing number of academic
papers and the continuous progress of academic thought.
China promulgated the National Standard of Abstract Compilation Rules (GB
6447-86) in the mid-1980s, It is pointed out that “abstracts are short articles that
simply and accurately describe the important contents of documents without
comments and supplementary explanations for the purpose of providing a general
outline of the contents of documents”, and the National Standard Writing Format of
Scientific and Technological Reports, Dissertations and Academic Papers (GB
7713-87) mentioned that “abstracts should be independent and self-contained, that is,
without reading the full text of reports and papers, we can also get the necessary
information”. The introduction of these standards further standardizes the writing of
abstracts in China.
Swales (1990) proposes the concept of language firstly and studies the abstract
systematically from the perspective of linguistics, and he believes that the structure of
English abstract should be consistent with the text, that is, the structure of abstract
should be introduction-method-result-conclusion. Bahatia (1993) believes that English
abstract should have four parts: introduction, method, result and conclusion. APA
(American Psychological Association) Manual (2010) pointed out that “ An abstract is
a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article. The abstract needs to be
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dense with information but also readable, well organized, brief, and self-contained”.
The MLA (Modern Language Association) Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly
Publishing (2001) require that the abstract should be no more than 350 words.
Zhang (2012) interpreted ISO 214-1976 (E) and GB 6447-86 by the use of stylistics
theory, discourse analysis theory and genre analysis theory, and summarized nine
principles that should be followed in the translation of Abstracts: reflecting the subject
characteristics of abstracts, normative principle, objectivity principle, integrity
principle, consistency principle, accuracy principle, conciseness principle, formal style
and keeping pace with the times. Cai (2017) analyzed the language features of English
abstracts of biological academic papers from the perspective of the length, structure,
voice and tense and proposed that the abstract should first highly summarize the
content of the original text so that readers can have a preliminary understanding of the
content of the article when reading the abstract. At the same time, it should also have a
special communicative function, which serves the communication between readers and
writers. Finally, the linguistic characteristics of the abstract also determine the stylistic
characteristics of the text. Guo (2018) studied the writing pattern of English abstract in
engineering geology based on corpus analysis by selecting 100 papers from 5
representative international engineering geological journals chiefly in English, and the
results show that all the selected abstracts basically consist of four parts of
I(introduction) -M(Method) -R(result) -C(conclusion) and follows the logical order of
I-M-R-C. Song et al. (2020) studied how the semantic feature dictionary identify
various structural elements of scientific paper abstract in the paper Semantic Feature
Dictionary Construction of Abstract in English Scientific Journals, and accomplished
mapping across abstract element classifications and proposed BOMRC system.
2.2 Research on Abstract by Foreign Scholars
According to Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English (7th
Edition), “Abstract” is “a short account of the contents of a book,etc.”, Day et al.
(1998:29) defined the abstract as “a miniature of the paper” in How to Write and
Publish a Scientific Paper, and Swales (1990) holds the same view, regarding abstract
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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
as “ a rite de passage for gaining entry into the scientific community via a
demonstration of increasing mastery of the academic dialect”.
Since the mid-1970s, some standards and manuals represented by international
standard ISO 214-1976 (E), “APA format manual” and “American abstract writing
standard” have been published successively, and the abstract writing has been further
standardized. In 1969, Ertl first put forward the structured abstract. He suggested that
the information of clinical medical papers should be listed in “tabular form”, so as to
save the paper review time. In 1987, Huth (1987) put forward the seven sub-heading
structured abstracts in Journal of Chronicle of Internal Medicine. Then In 1988,
Mulrow et al. put forward that review articles should adopt the six sub-heading
structured abstract. Hartley (1996) studied the layout of the abstract. With the maturity
of the application of structural abstract, Hartley, Benjamin, Mosteller and other
scientists began to explore whether it can be used in the continuous writing of subject
papers, and reached a positive conclusion.
Almost at the same time, applied linguists began to analyze abstracts from the
perspective of genre, and studied their move structures and language features. Based
on the study of medical English abstracts, Greatz (1985) summarized the most
common structures of medical English Abstracts: style, method, result and conclusion.
Swales (1990) proposed the four step model of introduction, method, result and
discussion, and Hyland (2000) proposed the five step model of introduction, purpose,
method, result and conclusion. Bathia (1993) thinks that the abstract style of academic
papers is not affected by the discipline. Neogu (1997) proposed the the four step model
of I(Introduction) -M(Method)-R(Result)-D(Discussion). Melander (1997) studies
papers in three different disciplines and concludes that the discourse structure of
academic paper abstracts varies from discipline to discipline.
Foreign research on abstracts mainly focuses on structural abstracts, including
writing content, genre structure and quality evaluation methods. However, there are
few literatures on the translation of abstracts, which mainly focus on the linguistic
features of the translation of abstracts.
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2.3 Research on Abstract by Domestic Scholars
There is no final conclusion when the domestic journals first used the abstract.
Liu (2008), investigated the application history of abstracts in Chinese Medical
Journal (founded in 1915), the oldest medical journal in China, and recorded the
application of abstracts in domestic journals.
Domestic scholars started their research on abstract a little late, but the research
process is similar to that of foreign countries. Since the publication of national
standard GB 6447-86, the research on abstract translation has been gradually
standardized.
Liang (2000) analyzed and demonstrated the regularities of the structure,
components and stylistic features of English abstracts in research papers and reports
and discussed the compilation norms of abstracts based on national standards. Ma
(2001) and Zhu (2001) studied the translation principles of abstracts. According to the
statistics of Zhang (2012), the study of abstract translation in China began in 1986.
Before 2004, it focused on the translation techniques and methods of words, sentences,
tenses and voice. Since 2005, linguistic theories have been used in abstract translation.
Liu (2003) studied the choice of words and sentences in the translation of abstracts of
scientific papers, and described the characteristics of English abstracts for scientific
papers and some common methods of writing and translating English abstracts for
scientific papers are described. Zheng (2003) discussed the types, writing norms and
styles of English abstracts, Wang (2005) analyzed the genre and language
characteristics of abstracts of scientific papers, and Zeng (2007) analyzed the factors
influencing the translation strategies of abstracts of Humanities and Social Sciences
papers. Han (2020) analyzes common mistakes in English abstract writing of
petroleum geology papers, and pointed out that people should pay attention to the
similarities and differences between Chinese and English punctuation marks, the
choice of verb tenses, the accuracy of translation of professional terms, and respect the
differences between Chinese and English expression habits, so as to improve the
quality of English abstract writing and promote the international exchange of
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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
academic achievements.
2.4 Previous Studies
The research on the translation of abstracts of petroleum sci-tech papers at home
and abroad is developing rapaidly, which is mainly reflected in the following aspects.
2.4.1 Multidimensional Research Content
In recent years, many scholars have discussed the translation of abstracts of
scientific papers, showing the characteristics of interdisciplinary and cross-cultural.
Zhang (2016) explored the language features and translation strategies in the
translation of abstracts of scientific papers by taking the translation of abstracts of
natural gas technology and economy as an example. Zhao (2018) studied the English
translation of Chinese abstracts based on grammatical metaphors in academic paper’s
abstracts, taking the parameters of the operational mechanism of grammatical
metaphors in English abstracts as the reference frame and standard, he put forward
suggestions on standardizing the writing and translation of English abstracts in
Chinese academic journals. Song and Hua (2019) used the methods of literature
review and random selection to make a comparative analysis of the language features
of the abstracts of Chinese and English academic papers by taking the abstracts of
computer academic papers as an example, and studied how to complete the framework
more in line with the international requirements and how to complete the translation
more accurately after being written. Ummah and Setiawan (2019) studied the
grammatical errors in the translation of abstracts written by students, clarified that
most students would make grammatical errors in the translation of abstracts, and found
182 errors in five categories: verb, numeral, subject predicate consistency, parallelism
and unnatural structure. Huang and Zhang (2019) analyzed the translation of patent
literature and its impact on technological innovation from the concept and
classification of patent literature translation, taking abstract translation and technical
solution translation of patent literature as the breakthrough point. Zhou (2019)
collected 261 English abstracts of domestic scientific papers from 1987 to 2016, and
analyzed the overall situation, content and development trend of relevant research,
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then pointed out that at the present stage, the research on English abstracts in China
can be divided into two categories: the research on the process of abstracting and the
research on the existing English abstracts. Wang and Hua (2019) combined their
research with the professional characteristics of computer English, on the basis of
scientific and technological English translation methods, using literature method,
descriptive method and case analysis method to analyze the language characteristics of
abstracts at home and abroad.
2.4.2 Diversified Theoretical Perspectives
The applied theoretical perspectives tend to be diversified, such as functional
equivalence theory, foreignization translation theory, skopos theory, eco translatology
theory, relevance theory and so on. Shu (2012) elaborated the significance of the
research on the translation of English abstracts of social science papers from the
perspective of eco-translatology based on the theory of eco-translatology, and
discussed the feasibility of applying the main core concepts of eco-translatology such
as “harmony and unity”, “adaptation / selection” and “translator centered” to guide the
translation practice of English abstracts of social science papers. Tong (2015) studied
and summarized the translation process and behavior of scientific and technological
paper abstracts under the guidance of text type theory and functional skopos theory
and combined with specific examples in the English translation of some abstracts in
Special Equipment for Electronic Industry as the Research Object in translation
practice. Guo (2016) introduced in detail the characteristics, structure and basic
requirements of each part of the patent abstract, and proposed four basic principles for
the translation of patent abstract guided by skopos theory. Zhai (2017) discussed the
translation problems and strategies in the process of patent abstract translation from
the perspective of functional skopos theory. Hong (2017) analyzed the field, tenor and
mode of English academic paper abstracts from the perspective of discourse, obtained
the discourse features and language use signs that restrict the three functions, and
tentatively put forward the translation strategies under the three functions, and
expounds how to accurately translate technical vocabulary and how to choose voice,
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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
mood system and modality system in translation. Wang (2018) discussed some
problems in the translation of academic paper abstracts from the perspective of text
typology and Skopos Theory in functionalist translation theory, and proposed
strategies, principles and techniques of abstract translation. Gao (2019) compared and
analyzed the Chinese and English abstracts of the core journals of traditional Chinese
medicine at home and abroad according to the contemporary western rhetoric theory
framework and he proposed that there were differences between Chinese and English
abstracts in discourse reliability, appeal strategy and discourse construction, then
discussed the adjustment methods of English translation of Chinese abstracts on this
basis. Chen (2019) practiced the C-E translation of patent abstracts under the guidance
of communicative translation theory, and discussed the translation methods and
strategies for this kind of texts.
2.4.3 Diversity of Research Methods
With the continuous development of science and technology, many scholars begin
to use corpus and other tools to analyze abstract translation quantitatively and
qualitatively. Liao (2015) established two corpora: a bilingual parallel corpus of
English abstracts of Chinese journal articles and an English journal article abstract
corpus of the same research field to explore various translation commonalities in C-E
abstracts translation and the speech structure of translated and untranslated English
paper abstracts. Chen et al. (2017) established a corpus of English abstracts of core
journals of traditional Chinese medicine, and based on the corpus, analyzed the
linguistic characteristics of the purpose, method, result and conclusion of the structural
abstracts of academic papers of traditional Chinese medicine. Chen and Wang (2018)
adopted the parallel discourse contrastive approach to analyze the similarities and
differences of the same kind of academic paper abstracts in the two languages from the
aspects of argument, appeal, form and rhetoric. Yuan (2018) discussed the problems
and solutions of patent abstract English translation under computer-aided translation
based on a lot of practice done by Trados. Bai and Fan (2019) pointed out the research
space and research trend of English translation of academic paper abstracts from three
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aspects of research content, research method and research object by using corpus
based on the literature about problems and error analysis of English translation of
academic paper abstracts retrieved from CNKI.
This chapter takes a review of research on the writing and translation of academic
abstracts at home and abroad and expounds the definition and function of abstract,
reviews the formation and development of abstract, and summarizes the research
status of academic paper abstract at home and abroad. Scholars at home and abroad
have a common point in the study of abstracts, which is to analyze the macro
movement structure and language characteristics of English abstracts from the
perspective of stylistics and genre analysis. However, there are also some deficiencies
in the existing studies, such as the lack of detailed researches on specific subjects.
Most foreign scholars study abstracts from the perspective of writing, focusing on
structural abstracts. At present, structured abstracts are not only used in medical
journals, but also in non-medical journals and a few social science journals. However,
due attention has not been paid to the study of abstract translation, which still needs to
be explored in terms of translation theory, translation principles, translation strategies
and translation models.
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CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN
CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN
3.1 Research Tools
There are four kinds of tools used in this research: Corpus collection tool,
document conversion tool, tagger software and statistics tool.
3.1.1 Source of Corpus
China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI ) is a key national research and
information publishing institution in China, supported by People’s Republic of China
(PRC) Ministry of Education, PRC Ministry of Science, Propaganda Department of
the Communist Party of China and PRC General Administration of Press and
Publication.
Wanfang Data is a task force of the Institute of Scientific & Technological
Information of China (ISTIC), the Chinese Ministry of Science & Technology. It
focuses on digital resources, such as journals, dissertations, conference proceedings,
patents, standards, Chinese companies, etc, providing information on Chinese studies
(arts/humanities/social sciences), Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Chinese
Business, Law, Government, Defense, Military, Science, and Technology.
3.1.2 Document Conversion Tool
ABBYY FineReader 12. ABBYY can quickly and accurately convert scanned
paper documents, PDF files or OCR text images into an editable format with a high
recognition accuracy, leading the world in document identification, data capture and
language technologies.
3.1.3 Corpus Tool
SDL Trados Studio is a computer-assisted translation software suite, developed
by the German company Trados GmbH and currently available from SDL plc, a
provider of customer experience cloud solutions. It is considered the market leader in
providing translation software across the entire translation supply chain, including
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freelance translators, language service providers, corporate language departments and
academic institutions.
3.2 Corpus Processing
Upload Chinese and English files into SDL Trados for the online alignment. Then
save the document as a Chinese and English Bilingual document.
3.3 Research Methods
Firstly, this paper systematically summarizes the development and current
situation of translation theories related to abstracts and applied texts of scientific
papers at home and abroad, then we use CNKI, Wanfang, and other retrieval systems
to collect and sort out the Chinese and English abstract samples of highly cited
petroleum machinery research papers in recent five years, based on the existing
international and national standards to diagnose the translation errors of their English
abstracts, summarize the causes and propose solutions. Thirdly, we classify the
translation theories and strategies embodied in the samples collected in the previous
step, and analyze and discuss the application of guiding theories in the translation
practice of petroleum machinery abstracts. Finally, we summarize the above work, use
the collected typical examples to analyze the features and commonalities of this kind
of English texts from the aspects of vocabulary, sentence and discourse, summarize the
translation and writing paradigms of relevant texts, and probes into the corresponding
translation strategies and translation methods.
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