论文范文:南希·洪恩伯格的研究论文《双语读写能力连续体》 英汉翻译实践

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 10:00
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
本报告基于译者的英译汉翻译实践。源文选自宾夕法利亚大学资深教育语言 学专家南希·洪恩伯格(Nancy H. Hornberger)教授的一篇学术论文——《双语 读写能力连续体》。尽管双语读写
本报告基于译者的英译汉翻译实践。源文选自宾夕法利亚大学资深教育语言
学专家南希·洪恩伯格(Nancy H. Hornberger)教授的一篇学术论文——《双语
读写能力连续体》。尽管双语读写现象在世界范围内很普遍,但很少有学者对此
予以关注。因此洪恩伯格教授对大量有关双语、读写能力的文献进行综述,并提
出一个理解双语读写能力的框架。本论文认为双语读写能力的复杂性可以通过一
系列连续体的内在相互关联来解释。这些连续体用以定义双语读写能力的语境、
个体发展及媒介。这一系列连续体对双语读写教学和研究具有启示意义。故该论
文自发表以来就引起了广大教育语言学学者的关注,并被大量引用,目前该论文
暂无汉语译本。
本报告旨在探讨功能对等理论指导下该学术论文的翻译方法。由于学术论文
具有严谨、逻辑性强、文体正式的特点,源文中概括性词语、被动句和长难句较
多,如何准确通顺地翻译这些词语和句子,让译文更有逻辑层次是本次翻译实践
中译者面临的困难。为了力求译文准确,符合译入语的表达习惯,在功能对等理
论的指导下,译者选取了四个主要翻译方法:转换、增译、换序、拆分,并结合
例子进行探讨。在词汇层面,译者使用了转换、增译法;在句子层面,译者运用
了转换、增译、换序、拆分法。译者希望本翻译报告中探讨的方法能对类似文本
翻译有所贡献,本译文能为我国双语读写能力研究的发展提供些许帮助。
关键字: 双语读写能力;连续体;功能对等理论;学术论文翻译
ii
Contents
Contents
Abstract...........................................................................................................................i
摘 要 .............................................................................................................................ii
Contents ........................................................................................................................iii
1 Introduction.................................................................................................................1
 1.1 Introduction to the Author....................................................................................1
 1.2 Introduction to Continua of Biliteracy.................................................................2
 1.3 Analysis of the Source Text.................................................................................2
 1.4 The Purpose and Significance of the Translation Project....................................5
 1.4.1 The Purpose of the Translation Project..........................................................5
 1.4.2 The Significance of the Translation Project...................................................5
2 Theoretical Guidance ..................................................................................................7
 2.1 Eugene Nida’s Equivalence Theory.....................................................................7
 2.1.1 Formal Equivalence and Dynamic Equivalence ............................................7
 2.1.2 Functional Equivalence..................................................................................8
 2.2 The Application of Functional Equivalence Theory............................................9
3 Translation Process ...................................................................................................11
 3.1 Pre-translating ....................................................................................................11
 3.2 Translating .........................................................................................................13
 3.3 Post-translating...................................................................................................14
4 Analysis of the Cases from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence...................16
 4.1 Difficulties in Translation ..................................................................................16
 4.1.1 Translation of Nouns....................................................................................16
 4.1.2 Translation of Passive Sentences .................................................................17
 4.1.3 Translation of Long and Complex Sentences ..............................................17
 4.2 Translation Methods ..........................................................................................18
 4.2.1 Conversion ...................................................................................................19
 4.2.2 Amplification ...............................................................................................21
 4.2.3 Inversion.......................................................................................................23
 4.2.4 Division........................................................................................................26
5 Summary ...................................................................................................................28
 5.1 Gains from the Translation ................................................................................28
iii
Contents
5.2 Problems to Be Solved.......................................................................................29
References....................................................................................................................30
Appendices...................................................................................................................32
Appendix A..................................................................................................................32
Appendix B ..................................................................................................................77
Acknowledgements......................................................................................................81
iv
Introduction
1 Introduction
The translator has translated Nancy H. Hornberger’s academic paper Continua of
Biliteracy to accomplish the translation practice. Continua of Biliteracy is a classic
research paper of biliteracy, which mainly researches the complexity of biliteracy that
can be explained by a series of interrelated continua and has been widely cited since
its publication. Although biliteracy has been investigated repeatedly in the West, the
research on biliteracy in China is far from enough. Therefore, the translator selects
Continua of Biliteracy as the translation practice, a part of the master’s thesis. The
source text in English has a total of 12,000 words and in Chinese translation 16,000
words. There is no Chinese translation of the source text so far. Based on the
translation practice, the translator writes this translation report.
Dr. Hornberger’s works are recommended to the translator by the translator’s
supervisor, who is a student of Hornberger. After careful selection, the translator
chooses the academic paper Continua of Biliteracy as the translation task, as it has
played a powerful role in inspiring various researches on the theory, policy and
practice of biliteracy in a multilingual environment. In addition, the model proposed
in the paper has offered the reference for multilingual educational practice, research,
and policy in a range of settings all over the world.
1.1 Introduction to the Author
Nancy H. Hornberger, the author of Continua of Biliteracy, is Professor and
director of Educational Linguistics Division of the Graduate School of Education at
the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. As one of the most outstanding
leaders in the field of Educational Linguistics, she enjoys high reputation and prestige
in academia with her works and contributions.
Dr. Hornberger is internationally known for her work in bilingualism and
biliteracy, ethnography and language policy, and Indigenous language revitalization.
She is also engaged in research, lecture, consultation and teaching of multilingual
education policies and practices in the United States, Bolivia and Peru and has also
worked in China, Brazil, Singapore, South Africa and other places around the world.
She has published 43 books and volumes and 78 articles in refereed journals. Since
1995, she has served as co-editor of the international book series on Bilingual
Education and Bilingualism (Multilingual Matters), which has surpassed 100
published books. Of all her works, Continua of Biliteracy selected for this translation
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
project is one of her most influential and widely cited papers.
1.2 Introduction to Continua of Biliteracy
 Continua of Biliteracy, selected for the translation project by the translator, is a
review based on 125 literature, and it provides a framework to situate teaching,
research, and language planning in linguistically different settings to discuss
biliteracy. Although biliteracy is worldwide, relatively few scholarly studies have
focused explicitly on it. Therefore, this review paper draws from literature on
bilingualism, literacy, and the teaching of reading and writing to put forward a
framework for understanding biliteracy. It argues that interrelated continua can be
used to understand biliteracy. These continua define the contexts, development, and
media of biliteracy, and they are as follows: micro-macro, oral-literate,
monolingual-bilingual; reception-production, oral language-written language, L1-L2
transfer, simultaneous-successive exposure, similar-dissimilar language structures,
and convergent-divergent scripts. Finally, it concludes with the suggestion that the
more learners’ learning contexts allow them to take advantage of all points of the
continua, the greater are the opportunities for their full biliterate development.
 Although Continua of Biliteracy was published 30 years ago, it is still crucial
and classic in educational linguistics. In 1989, it was first published in Review of
Educational Research, which is a core journal of education in the United States.
Afterward in 2003, it was collected in the book Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological
Framework for Educational Policy, Research, and Practice in Multilingual Settings,
and Continua of Biliteracy is the first chapter of this book. Since its publication, it has
attracted the attention of a large number of scholars and has been widely cited. In
Google academic research, this paper has been cited for 568 times, and 133 times are
in recent five years, among which more than 20 of them are books. It is also cited in
articles published in top international journals, such as The Modern Language
Journal, which shows its significance.
1.3 Analysis of the Source Text
The source text is analyzed in terms of text type and linguistic features in this
section, which is conducive for the translator to have a better understanding of the
source text, and provide a better translation.
The source text belongs to informative text according to Newmark’s
classification of text type. Newmark divided the type of texts into three categories,
2
Introduction
which are vocative text, expressive text, and informative text (Zhang Meifang, 2009).
From Newmark’s perspective, informative text refers to the type of text whose main
function is to record all kinds of information, such as academic papers, textbooks,
memoranda, and technical reports. The core of informative text is to convey real and
accurate information (Newmark, 2001). The source text attaches great importance to
the authenticity, accuracy and standardization of information by citing 125 literature
on bilingualism, reading, writing, linguistics, second language and foreign language
teaching. Consequently, in the process of translation, the translator focuses on the
veracity and objectivity of the translation.
The linguistic features of the source text are analyzed in the aspect of
vocabulary, syntax and text. In general, the prominent features of the source text are
that the terminologies in educational linguistics are numerous, the sentences are long
and complicated, as well as the logic of the discourse is rigorous. Furthermore, the
objective facts are emphasized, and the true and accurate information is transmitted.
On the basis of these features, the translator tries to translate terminologies correctly,
untangle long and complex sentences, and express the logic of the source text
accurately through in-depth understanding and repeated proofreading of the source
text.
 Linguistically, there are many terminologies about educational linguistics in the
source text. Academic papers are professional and abundant in terminologies and
phrases. Terminologies are widely utilized in the source text, such as “biliteracy”,
“literate”, “code-switching”, “ethnography of communication”, “sociolinguistics”,
“discourse analysis”. In the translation of academic papers, terminologies are crucial,
and their correct translation is the basis of the conversion between English and
Chinese.
 Furthermore, abstract nouns are frequently used in source texts, which makes it
difficult to express the meaning of these words accurately. Nominalization is one of
the most prominent features of formal English. The head word of a nominalized
structure is usually an abstract noun derived or transformed from a verb or an
adjective. To name only a few, “predominantly”, “schematically”, “bilingualism”,
“memorization”, “inappropriateness”, they are complicated for the translator, and
their meanings are relatively abstract and general. Therefore, translation is carried out
combining with context.
Syntactically, long and complex sentences with many changes in sentence
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
pattern are extensively used in the source text, which causes difficulties in
understanding and translation. Long and compound sentences are the main linguistic
features of English academic works (Liu Ying, 2014). In the translation practice, it
can be frequently seen that the number of words in a sentence is usually more than 30,
and there are often more than two modifiers or clauses in a sentence. A sentence in
the source text is given as an example.
Example 1
There is a relatively small but increasing proportion of explicit attention to (a)
bilingualism within the literature on literacy and literacy within the literature on
bilingualism and (b) second or foreign languages within the literatures on the
teaching of reading and writing and reading and writing within the literatures on
second or foreign language teaching. (Hornberger, 1989, p.272)
In this sentence, there are 53 words without any punctuations, which is a typical
long sentence. In translation, the translator untangles the logic of the sentence first,
and then employs translation methods to make the translation conform to the Chinese
expression and avoid the omission of information.
Textually, the source text is written logically, so the translator pays attention to
the logicality of the translation. Specific and actual cases are used to support the
author’s thesis, thus a clear logic between paragraphs can be seen in the source text.
For example, when bringing up the need for an understanding of biliteracy becomes
more pressing, the author presents three narrative vignettes and analyzes the
commons and differences of the three girls in the vignettes—all three girls are part of
the biliterate population of the American, but the educational programs they are
experiencing are vastly different and provocative questions remain to be answered.
From these three narrative vignettes, it can be concluded that biliteracy exists, as do
educational programs serving biliterate populations, but questions also exist. In the
following paragraphs, the author put forward that a framework for understanding
biliteracy is needed to situate research and teaching, and her paper is written to
address that need. Therefore, the translator reads the source text for several times
trying to understand the internal logic of the source text before embarking on
translation.
1.4 The Purpose and Significance of the Translation Project
4
Introduction
The translator will discuss the purpose and significance of the translation project
in this section. Through the analysis of the purpose and significance, the translator
clarifies the purposes of translation, so that the translation could serve the target
readers better.
1.4.1 The Purpose of the Translation Project
 The purpose of translating Continua of Biliteracy is to provide a translated text
about biliteracy and contribute to the study of biliteracy in China. In the past,
bilingualism and literacy were regarded as two separate disciplines. Nevertheless, in
the source text, the author provides a unified framework for the study of bilingualism
and literacy, considering bilingualism and even multilingualism in a comprehensive
and holistic manner, and any literacy practices can be located in the multidimensional
space provided by this framework and analyzed from various disciplinary
perspectives. Therefore, the translator hopes that the translation of this classic paper
on biliteracy could be helpful to the development of biliteracy research in China.
 The translator hopes to introduce the continua model of biliteracy to Chinese
bilingual instructors, scholars and language policy makers by translating the source
text. Although biliteracy has been studied by many foreign scholars as early as the
20th century, up to now Chinese scholars have done little research in this field. The
source text provides comprehensive and flexible continua models of biliteracy to
guide educators, researchers and decision-makers in the design, implementation and
evaluation of educational programs that promote the development of multilingual
learners, moreover, it has become the basis of practice, policy and research in
multilingual education around the world. Thus, the continua models of biliteracy
embodied in the source text can benefit the development of Chinese bilingual
education.
 Lastly, the translator hopes that the glossary summarized in this translation
project and the translation methods discussed in this report could be helpful for other
translators to translate similar texts, for the reason that the source text is an academic
paper with difficulty and intricacy in language and content.
1.4.2 The Significance of the Translation Project
This part mainly includes the application value and theoretical value of this
translation project. The translator will present them below, which will make readers
have a whole understanding of the significance, namely the importance of this task.
The application value of this translation project lies in offering biliteracy
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
research directions for Chinese bilingual researchers. Under the influence of
globalization and internationalization, a mounting number of countries have
established and implemented bilingual education systems. China is also trying to
catch up with this trend by gradually introducing bilingual teaching modes.
Nonetheless, there are few research on biliteracy in China. Therefore, Continua of
Biliteracy is selected as the translation practice, and the framework of biliteracy
provided in this paper can guide Chinese bilingual researchers and enlighten their
biliteracy research, so as to promote the development of bilingual education in China.
 Another application value of this translation project is to provide a reference for
the formulation of Chinese language policy. Bilingual education in China is still in the
development stage, and bilingual education policy is immature. Continua of Biliteracy
has played a strong inspiring role in stimulating the formulation of bilingual policy,
which may give references for Chinese language policy makers to formulate language
policies that are suitable for the development of bilingual education in China.
 The theoretical value of this translation project consists in applying functional
equivalence theory to the translation of academic papers and offering reference for
other translators when they translate similar text. Although functional equivalence
theory is well known in the field of translation, there are few practical studies on the
translation of English academic papers under the guidance of this theory. Therefore,
in consideration of the text type and linguistic features of the source text, the
translator chooses functional equivalence theory as the guiding theory to improve the
quality of Chinese translation of Continua of Biliteracy. The translator hopes that the
application of functional equivalence theory in the translation could contribute to
academic translation practice.
6
Theoretical Guidance
2 Theoretical Guidance
Eugene Nida’s functional equivalence theory is adopted as the guiding principle
of this translation project according to the features of the source text and the purposes
of translation. This chapter expounds Eugene Nida’s functional equivalence theory
and its application to the translation of academic paper, which proves that functional
equivalence theory can be employed in the translation of academic papers.
2.1 Eugene Nida’s Equivalence Theory
Eugene A. Nida, a well-known contemporary linguist, biblical research expert
and translator in the West, has exerted a great influence on the translation circle at
home and abroad. Among his translation theories, the most remarkable one is his
theory of equivalence, which can be roughly divided into three stages: formal
equivalence, dynamic equivalence and functional equivalence (Zhang Xuefang,
2008).
2.1.1 Formal Equivalence and Dynamic Equivalence
Nida believed that there were two types of equivalence, namely formal
equivalence and dynamic equivalence. Nida first proposed his view on formal
equivalence and dynamic equivalence in 1964. Formal equivalence focuses on the
form and content of the message itself (Nida, 1964). The translation that best
represents this kind of structural equivalence might be “gloss translation”, which
requires the translators to reproduce the form and content of the source text as much
as possible (Xie Tianzhen, 2008). Gloss translation is usually accompanied by a large
number of annotations, so that the target readers can better understand the target
translation as well as the customs, thinking and expression of the source text. Formal
equivalence translation is mainly source text-oriented, and its purpose is to reveal the
content and form of the original message as much as possible.
Dynamic equivalence focuses more on the recipient’s response rather than the
information in the source text. Dynamic equivalence translation aims to achieve
completely natural expression. Nida (1969) further defined dynamic equivalence as
“the degree to which the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to
it substantially the same manner as the receptors in the source language”. In dynamic
equivalence oriented translation, people pay more attention to the dynamic relationship, that is, the relationship between the translated text recipient and the
information should be the same as the relationship between the source recipient and
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
the original information (Xie Tianzhen, 2008). Dynamic equivalence emphasizes
reciprocal responses rather than reciprocal forms. To judge the quality of the
translation, one must not only compare the form and content of the translation and the
source text, but also compare the response of the target readers and the source text
readers, or whether the effect of the translation and the source text is consistent.
2.1.2 Functional Equivalence
Nida first proposed the concept of “functional equivalence” in 1986 and later
split functional equivalence into two levels, namely, the minimal level and the
maximal level. Some people may think that dynamic equivalence only refers to
something which has impact. In order to avoid this misunderstanding and emphasize
the concept of “function”, Nida replaced dynamic equivalence with functional
equivalence, and proposed minimal equivalence and maximal equivalence. From the
perspective of minimal level, the functional equivalence means that “The readers of a
translated text should be able to understand it to the extent that they can image how
the original readers understand and appreciated it” (Nida, 2001). While from the
maximal level, functional equivalence is “The readers of a translated text should be
able to understand and appreciate it in substantially the same manner as the original
readers did” (Nida, 2001)136. However, in specific translation practice, it is difficult to
achieve the maximal equivalence. Nida (1998) argued that due to certain differences
in the reception of information between the readers of the source text and the readers
of the target text, it is impossible to achieve the real equivalence between the source
text and the target text. It should be noted that functional equivalence cannot be
understood as mathematical equivalence, or strictly word-by-word,
sentence-by-sentence equivalence, rather it is a relatively objective equivalent
translation theory.
 Tan Zaixi made some interpretations of Nida’s functional equivalence theory in
the book The Revised Edition of Nida on Translation. The definition of functional
equivalence is reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of
the source information from semantics to style (Tan Zaixi, 1999). Tan Zaixi has a
specific analysis of this definition, the main points of which are summarized as
follows: firstly, in the process of reproducing the information of the source text, it is
not necessary to maintain its expression form; secondly, translationese will not exist
in the ideal translation; thirdly, in order to achieve an ideal translation, the translators
should seek the closest natural equivalent to the source language message; fourthly,
8
Theoretical Guidance
the primary point of translation is to translate the meaning of the source text; lastly,
though style is secondary compared with content, it is nevertheless important (Tan
Zaixi, 1999) 11-14.
The translator makes use of functional equivalence theory properly, which is of
great help to the improvement of translation quality. According to functional
equivalence theory, the translator is not simply pursuing formal equivalence in the
process of translation, nor deliberately pursuing complete equivalence in terms of
words and sentences. Instead, the translator tries to use the most natural language to
express the information contained in the source text on the basis of ensuring the
equivalence of meaning and style. In this way, the translator could realize the
functional equivalence between the target text and the source text, and make the
comprehension and response of the target language readers to the target language
similar to that of the source language readers to the source language.
2.2 The Application of Functional Equivalence Theory
The literature not only shows that functional equivalence could be used to guide
the translation of informative text, but also puts forward some points that should be
paid attention to in translation. In accordance with On Pragmatic Translation with
Functionalist Approach, Nida’s functional equivalence theory has a direct guiding
effect on the translation of informative text (Jia Wenbo, 2004). According to
Newmark’s classification of text types, academic papers are informative texts. Based
on Nida’s functional equivalence theory, the translators need to conform to the
accurate, fluent and academic principles in the translation of academic papers (Yan
Yannan, 2017). When translating academic papers under the guidance of functional
equivalence theory, the translators are suggested to change the form of the source text
when necessary for the purpose of avoiding translationese and bringing readers a
good reading experience (Dai Wei, 2016).
Functional equivalence can be employed to realize the natural transformation of
two different languages in the process of translating academic papers. Liu Hanbing
and Zhao Jing (2014) state that functional equivalence theory could provide a
theoretical basis for the entire translation of academic papers. In functional
equivalence theory, Nida recognizes that each language has its own distinctive
characteristics, and at the same time, he emphasizes that when the source language
and the target language are consistent in the core information, the form of the source
language is supposed to be adjusted, which makes the translation acceptable for the
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
target language readers (Liu Hanbing & Zhao Jing, 2014)30. Therefore, when
translating academic papers, translators need to achieve the acceptable conversion
between the two languages on the basis of information equivalence.
The purpose of applying functional equivalence theory to the translation of
Continua of Biliteracy is to convey the information of the source text completely,
naturally and objectively and to emphasize its authenticity. As mentioned above, the
source text belongs to informative text, and its purpose is to convey information.
Functional equivalence emphasizes the reproduction of the original message, which is
corresponding to the characteristics of the source text that mainly transmits
information. Moreover, the source text is a typical academic paper encompassing
professional and unfamiliar information for the translator. Specifically, the source text
has terminologies and abstract words at the lexical level, logical relations among
words and sentences at the syntactic level, and precise expressions and systematic
knowledge at the textual level. Therefore, the translator employs functional
equivalence theory to guide the translation of Continua of Biliteracy.
10
Translation Process
3 Translation Process
A qualified translator is supposed to follow certain procedures in the process of
translation. The translation process has certain influence on the quality of translation
although it is personalized and not explicitly presented to the target readers. In this
translation practice, the translation process is divided into three steps, namely,
pre-translating preparation, translating process and post-translating proofreading. For
each step, the translator formulates different plans and takes different actions.
3.1 Pre-translating
Pre-translation preparation is the preparation stage before the translation activity,
which mainly includes looking up new words and reading relevant background
materials. Pre-translation preparation can not only help the translator to understand
the theme of the source text more quickly and clearly, but also assist the translator to
solve the problems in the translating process. The translator made some preparations
by consulting new words, checking terminologies and reading parallel texts before
translating.
 It is necessary to understand the new words before translating the source text. To
begin with, the translator read the source text to understand its framework and general
content. After reading, the translator found that because of lacking relevant
knowledge in educational linguistics, the source text had many new words and
terminologies that were unfamiliar to her. Consequently, the translator consulted the
Oxford Advanced English-Chinese Dictionary and New Century English-Chinese
Dictionary to know the basic meaning of these new words and considered them in the
context to further understand what they really mean.
 The translator consulted terminologies online. She found the correct Chinese
translation of the terminologies in the source text by reading literature on CNKI,
using search engines such as Term Online, Google and Bing, as well as translation
tools such as Youdao and Baidu dictionary. In order to make readers have a
preliminarily clear understanding of terminologies, some terminologies about
educational linguistics and their Chinese translation are presented in the following
table. The translator arranges these terminologies from A to Z to help readers find
them conveniently and quickly.
Table 1 Terminologies and Their Chinese Translation in Linguistics
Source Text Translated Text
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
1 code-switching 语码转换
2 contextualization 语境化提示 3 discourse analysis 话语分析 4 discourse pattern 语篇模式 5 discourse strategies 话语策略 6 first-language acquisition 母语习得 7 immersion program 沉浸式教学 8 prior knowledge 先备知识 9 second-language acquisition 二语习得
10 sociolinguistics 社会语言学
11 social interaction 社会交际
 12 transformational grammar 转换生成语法
 The terminologies in this table belong to educational linguistics, which were
translated by checking the CNKI and Term Online. Only after these terminologies are
understood can the translator translate the source text accurately and smoothly.
 Furthermore, reading parallel texts could be conducive to improve the accuracy
of the target text. Parallel texts generally refer to discourse types with similar
communicative functions in different languages and cultures (Li Dechao & Wang
Kefei, 2009). By reading parallel texts, the translator could learn some more
commonly used expressions and styles in the target language, which were helpful to
strengthen the accuracy and standardization of the target text and improve the quality
of the translation practice. Since the theme of Continua of Biliteracy is biliteracy, the
translator chose some parallel texts to read, such as Continua of Biliteracy: An
Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research, and Practice in
Multilingual Settings, Understanding Translanguaging Practices Through a
Biliteracy Continua Framework: Adult Biliterates Reading Academic Texts in Their
Two Languages, Chinese–English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language and
Writing System Transfer,《新读写素质研究与英语课堂教学分析》and《外国语言
教育中的新读写能力研究综述》.
 In Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy,
Research, and Practice in Multilingual Settings, the translator mainly learned the
writing background, writing purpose and practical significance of the source text. By
reading Understanding Translanguaging Practices Through a Biliteracy Continua
Framework: Adult Biliterates Reading Academic Texts in Their Two Languages, the
12
Translation Process
translator further understood the bilingual continua model. After reading Chinese–
English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language and Writing System Transfer, the
translator learned some relevant knowledge about biliteracy acquisition. Moreover, in
the latter two Chinese literature, the translator had a basic understanding of some
professional concepts related to literacy.
Pre-translating preparation contributes to better translation. Through the above
preparatory work, the translator had a good understanding of the source text and
background knowledge of biliteracy, and was also familiar with the expressions of
educational linguistics, which helped to make the translation more accurate,
professional and smooth.
3.2 Translating
Translating is a key step of the whole translation process to produce the target
text. In the process of translating, the translator tried to employ functional equivalence
theory and various translation methods to get rid of the inherent form of English
sentences and reconstruct the translation in accordance with Chinese expression.
When translating, the translator encountered difficulties in translating nouns, passive
sentences and long and complex sentences, and used translation methods such as
conversion, amplification, inversion and division to deal with these difficulties. The
translator gives an example to present how she solved the problems. Revising for
several times is a vital and necessary procedure to ensure the quality of the target text.
Compared with the first translation, the quality of the revised translation is improved
under the guidance of functional equivalence theory.
Example 1
 Source text: In an urban fourth-grade class composed of 11 Asian and 17 Black
children, Sokhom, age 10, has recently been promoted to the on-grade-level reading
group and is doing well.
 First translation: 在一个由11名亚洲儿童和17名黑人儿童组成的城市四年级
班级里,10 岁的 Sokhom 最近被提升到高年级阅读小组,成绩不错。
 Revised translation: 在一所城市学校的四年级班级里,有 11 名亚洲儿童和 17
名黑人儿童,10 岁的 Sokhom 最近升入了高年级阅读组,成绩不错。
 In this example, the translator found that the adverbial in this sentence is very
long, which would be difficult to understand if she only translated it mechanically.
Therefore, the translator adjusted the word order to reduce the translationese. Then
she changed the passive voice “been promoted” to the active voice to avoid
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
misunderstanding as well as achieve meaning equivalence between the source text
and the target text.
Besides, the translator translated the source text paragraph by paragraph
considering the consistency among sentences and the integrity of meaning. After
translating an entire paragraph, the translator adjusted and modified the paragraph
word by word and sentence by sentence. When a whole chapter was finished, the
translator went through the translated text to reevaluate the translation of each word
and sentence according to the Chinese expression. Eventually, the whole text was
translated in this way. The translator would take the following sentence as an
example.
Example 2
Source text: Consider the following three narrative vignettes.
First translation: 请考虑以下三个叙述小插曲。
Revised translation: 请看以下三个小故事。
The words “narrative” and “vignettes” were comprehended by the translator, but
it was not easy to make the translation conform to the expression of Chinese. The
translator translated “narrative vignettes” into many different versions such as “叙事
小片段”, “小短文”, “小故事” and sought the opinions of many friends. Finally, she
chose “ 小 故 事 ” as the target text, because it is more in line with the Chinese
expression and more readable.
3.3 Post-translating
Proofreading is the last step of translation, which is important to ensure the
quality of translation. The purpose of proofreading is to check whether there are any
mistakes or omissions in the translation, to examine whether the translator has a
precise understanding of the source text, and to check whether the translated text is
fluent and conforms to the expression of the target language. Excellent translation is
not only related to the translator’s translation ability, but also comes from the results
of repeated proofreading.
The translator carried out proofreading after finishing the translation. She
checked whether there were any omissions or errors such as punctuation and grammar
mistakes, and corrected the inappropriate expressions or mistranslation caused by
possible misunderstanding of the source text. Thereafter, corrections or
compensations for these mistakes were conducted. Besides, the translator made the
translation of some words and phrases consistent in the translation, for instance:
14
Translation Process
Example 1
Source text: immersion program
In the source text, “immersion program” appears three times. When the translator
proofread the target text, she found that sometimes “immersion program” was
translated into “浸入式教学”, sometimes it was translated into “沉浸式教学”. To
make the target text unified, the translator translated all the words into “沉浸式教学”.
Nevertheless, it was not easy for the translator to find her own translation
mistakes. Therefore, after several times of proofreading, the translator exchanged her
translated text with her classmates for revision. Suggestions and views offered by her
supervisor and classmates were written down in sequence, then the translator took
their advice into consideration and amended her translation accordingly to improve
the quality of the translation. The following example shows the translator’s process of
correcting the translation mistake and improving translation quality.
Example 2
Source text: She is no longer in the school’s pull-out English for Speakers of
Other Languages (ESOL) program and spends her whole day in the mainstream
classroom.
First translation: 她不再参加学校的“为说其他语言的人推出英语”(ESOL)
项目,而是将整天时间都花在主科课上。
Revised translation: 她不再参加学校“为其他语种使用者所设的英语课程”
(ESOL)项目,而是整天都在主流课堂里学习。
It can be seen from the two versions that both of them can express the meaning
of the sentence, but the first translation is not fluent and difficult to understand. After
taking the supervisor’s advice, the translator corrected the translation of “mainstream
classroom” and the revised translation was more readable and more in line with
Chinese usage.
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
4 Analysis of the Cases from the Perspective of Functional
Equivalence
Translation is a complicated process, and the translator encounters difficulties in
the translation practice. In the following chapter, under the guidance of functional
equivalence, the translator tries to deal with the difficulties by using relevant
translation methods and some typical cases are analyzed to present her translation
process so as to improve the quality of translation.
4.1 Difficulties in Translation
Sorting out the difficulties is helpful to find solutions. In this section, the
translator demonstrates the difficulties she encountered during the translation process,
which are the translation of nouns, passive sentences, and long and complex
sentences.
4.1.1 Translation of Nouns
It is difficult for the translator to translate abstract nouns accurately due to their
generalized meanings. A significant difference between English and Chinese lies in
the fact that English is characterized by noun-centered features while Chinese
language is characterized by verb-centered features (Shi Yao, 2008). A great many
abstract words or nominalized structures can be found in the source text, to name only
a few, “reversal”, “memorization”, “inappropriateness”, “juxtaposition”, “in an
attempt to” and so on. Many nouns in English come from verbs and have different
meanings, and the morphological changes are relatively simple. They are often used
to express the concepts in verbs. In contrast, there are more verbs used in Chinese,
forming an apparent verb-centered feature. In addition, another reason that causes this
difficulty is the source text has much expertise that is unfamiliar to the translator.
Therefore, in the process of translation, it is necessary to transform parts of speech to
make the translation smooth and natural so as to achieve functional equivalence.
4.1.2 Translation of Passive Sentences
The translation of passive sentences is a key and difficult point in this translation
practice. Chen Xuhua (1981) pointed out that from the perspective of language
comparison between English and Chinese, the passive sentences in English are more
widely used than those in Chinese. According to the translator’s statistics, there are
about 280 sentences in the source text, of which about 70 are passive sentences. In
other words, the number of passive sentences in the source text accounts for about
16
Analysis of the Cases from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence
25% of the total number of sentences.
The Chinese translation of passive sentences is easy to make the target text hard
to read and understand because of the difference in the use of passive sentences
between English and Chinese. From the analysis of the source text, it can be seen that
the academic paper Continua of Biliteracy is written objectively. Due to the
objectivity of English academic papers, the objective things and phenomena are
usually taken as the narrative subject in the papers, and the topic is often the action
object or the action itself rather than the executor of the action. Therefore, passive
sentences are used frequently in the academic paper to reduce its subjectivity (Fang
Xiaobing, 2012). However, the function of passive sentences in Chinese is basically
to express unfortunate or unpleasant things (Wang Li, 2004). When translating
English passive sentences, the translator does not adopt word for word translation, but
flexibly applies translation methods to make the target text faithful to the source text
in content and conform to the Chinese expression. A sentence is taken below to
demonstrate the translation of passive voice.
Example 1
 Source text: It should be emphasized that the findings that a stronger first
language leads to a stronger second language do not necessarily imply that the first
language must be fully developed before the second language is introduced.
 As can be seen in the sentence above, there are four clauses in this sentence, and
three passive voice “be emphasized”, “be developed”, “is introduced” are applied. It
is not easy to translate passive sentences because of the difference in the use of
passive voice between English and Chinese. When translating this sentence, the
translator uses the method of conversion to translate the passive sentence into an
active sentence.
4.1.3 Translation of Long and Complex Sentences
There are a large number of long and complex sentences in the source text,
which are difficult to understand and translate for the translator. In English, the
emphasis is on hypotaxis, the syntactic structure is rigorous, and the meaning is
accurate. While in Chinese, the emphasis is on parataxis, and the syntactic structure is
more changeable (Ye Zinan, 2001). In the process of English-Chinese translation, the
feature of hypotaxis in English affects Chinese translation, which is not only because
of the long and compounded sentences, but also because of the influence of syntactic
differences. The following sentence is taken as an example to illustrate the difficulty
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
of translating long and complex sentences.
Example 1
 Source text: Building from communicative theory and work by Roman Jakobson
published in 1953 and 1960, Hymes suggested an array of components that might
serve as a heuristic for the ethnographic study of speech events, or more generally,
communicative events, where such events refer to activities or aspects of activities
that are directly governed by rules or norms for the use of language and that consist
of one or more speech acts.
 In this compound sentence, there are four attributive clauses and a non-predicate
as adverbial with a total of 70 words. “Building from...” is a non-predicate which
serves as adverbial. The first “that” is a relative pronoun that guides the attributive
clause to modify the antecedent “components”. “Where” is a relative adverb that
guides the non-restrictive attributive clause to make an explanation on “speech
events” and “communicative events”. The second “that” and third “that” in this
sentence are the relative pronouns that guide the attributive clauses to modify the
antecedent “activities or aspects of activities”.
 When encountering such a long and complex sentence, the translator carefully
analyzes the grammar and finds out the logical relationship. Thereafter, under the
guidance of Nida’s functional equivalence theory, she employs translation methods to
tackle this kind of long and complex sentences, so as to make the target text more
fluent and readable. In the following section, the translator will make a specific
analysis of the translation of long and complex sentences.
4.2 Translation Methods
In terms of the difficulties encountered in translation practice, the translator
adopts translation methods under the guidance of functional equivalence theory.
Translation methods refer to the specific ways, steps and means taken to achieve
specific translation purposes in translation activities (Xiong Bing, 2014). In the
process of translation, the translator tries to employ some translation methods to
achieve the equivalence between the target text and the source text. In this part, she
will analyze some cases extracted from the source text with specific translation
methods, which are conversion, amplification, inversion and division.
4.2.1 Conversion
Conversion is used for the purpose of giving a natural and fluent translation.
18
Analysis of the Cases from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence
Conversion refers to the process of converting the linguistic unit or structure of the
source text into a linguistic unit or structure with similar attributes or heterogeneous
attributes in the target language, and conversion is the transformation of vocabulary,
syntax, discourse and some other aspects (Xiong Bing, 2014)87.
 In the translation practice, the translator applies conversion to the translation of
nouns and passive sentences. One of the conversions used widely is class-shifts,
which refers to the conversion of part of speech between English and Chinese, such as
nouns and verbs (Zheng Shuming & Cao Hui, 2011). Class-shifts can get rid of the
original word structure and transform many awkward and stiff expressions into more
smooth and natural ones. The translator employs class-shifts to the translation of
nouns. Voice conversion refers to transforming passive voice to active voice in
English-Chinese translation (Li Yan & Li Hui, 2005). Huge difference exists between
English and Chinese, which includes more passive sentences used in English and
more active sentences used in Chinese generally. Therefore, the translator employs
conversion to the translation of some passive sentences.
1) Translation of Nouns
 The translator applies conversion to the translation of nouns in the translation
practice. Conversion of part of speech is a commonly used method in the translation
of nominalization structure, which helps to make the target text smooth (Chen Xinyan
& Shao Hua, 2019). Here are three examples of shifting nouns into verbs.
 Example 1
 Source text: In the rote learning and memorization of the Koran in Muslim
societies, emphasis is placed on ‘reading’ a text that is of a ‘conceptual and linguistic
complexity far beyond the understanding of the young children who memorize it’
(Baynham, 1988).
Target text: 在穆斯林社会中,死记硬背《古兰经》时,重点放在“阅读”
一段经文,这段经文的“概念和语言复杂性远远超出了背诵它的儿童理解能力”
(Baynham,1988 年)。
Example 2
Source text: the reversal of traditional leadership patterns ensuing from literacy
acquisition by the younger generation;
Target text: 年轻一代获得读写能力后,传统领导模式发生逆转;
Example 3
Source text: The paper concludes with comments on the implications of the
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
continua for research in and teaching of biliteracy.
Target text: 本文最后评述了双语读写能力的研究和教学意义。
 In these three examples, the translator converts part of speech of the abstract
nouns and translates them as verbs. In the first example, the nouns “learning,
memorization” are translated into verbs “记,背”. The translator translates “the rote
learning and memorization of” into “死记硬背”, a Chinese four-character phrase to
make the target text more fluent and readable; in the second example, “reversal”, as a
noun, is translated into a verb phase “发生逆转”; and in the third example, the noun
“comments” is translated into the verb “评述”. By doing in this way, the “natural”
principle of functional equivalence theory can be achieved and the translationese is
reduced to a great extent. The target text also conveys the original message and
knowledge of source text completely. Moreover, the purpose of translating these
nouns into verbs is to conform to idiomatic Chinese expression, so that the translation
is more vivid and accurate than just translating them to nouns. On the contrary, the
translation will be hard to understand.
2) Translation of Passive Sentences
 The conversion method is also used in the translation of passive sentences.
Generally speaking, there are more passive sentences in English than in Chinese while
more active sentences in Chinese than in English. In the process of English to Chinese
translation, the translator keeps this difference in her mind and converts the passive
sentences into the active sentences according to the way of Chinese expression so as
to achieve functional equivalence. There are two examples of the application of
conversion in the translation of passive sentences.
Example 4
 Source text: Not only is the three-dimensionality of any one figure representative
of the interrelatedness of its constituent continua, but it should be emphasized that
the interrelationships extend across the contexts, development, and media of biliteracy
as well.
Target text: 任何一个图表的三维性不仅代表其构成连续体的相互关系,而且
应该强调的是,这种相互关系也涵盖了双语读写能力的语境、个体发展和媒介。
In this example, in order to make the translation more concise, it is not necessary
to present the sender of the action “emphasize”. So the translator converts the passive
voice “be emphasized” into active voice “强调” and translates this sentence into a
Chinese sentence with no subject. Chinese sentence with no subject is a unique
20
Analysis of the Cases from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence
sentence pattern in Chinese. The subject is not intentionally omitted, but a way of
Chinese expression. The translator realizes the functional equivalence by doing in this
way, to put it in another way, the translator converts the passive voice to active voice
to conform the characteristics of target language, making the target text more
idiomatic.
Example 5
Source text: The notion of continuum is intended to convey that, although one
can identify (and name) points on the continuum, those points are not finite, static, or
discrete.
Target text: 连续体的概念旨在传达这样一种观点:尽管人们可以识别(并
命名)连续体上的点,但这些点并不是有限的、静态的或离散的。
In this example, the subject “The notion of continuum” is an objective and
inanimate thing, and there is no actor guided by the preposition “by”. In this case,
according to Chen Meilian (2006), it should be translated into an active sentence
according to Chinese grammar and expression. The subject in the source text is still
the subject of the translation, that is, the word “被” should be omitted to make the
translation smooth. Therefore, in the translation “is intended to convey” is translated
into “旨在传达”, and the word “被” is cancelled.
The two sentences above are all passive sentences, but when they are translated
into Chinese, “be emphasized” and “is intended” are converted into active voice.
Since the passive sentence has a negative meaning in China, Chinese prefer to express
passive meaning with active mood. Therefore, in the translation practice, the
translator translates English passive sentences into Chinese active sentences to make
the translation more fluent and readable, which is also in line with functional
equivalence.
4.2.2 Amplification
Amplification is applied in the translation practice to achieve the purpose of
equivalence between the Chinese translation and the source text in content and form.
Amplification refers to adding necessary words, phrases, clauses or completing
sentences on the basis of the source text, so as to make the translation conform to
Chinese usage in grammar and language form and keep the translation consistent with
the source text in grammatical structure and semantics (Li Yinfang, 2007).
The translator employs amplification to the translation of some passive
sentences. According to Li Yinfang (2007), the passive sentence is frequently used in
21
云南民族大学硕士学位论文
English and is often translated into the active sentence in Chinese. The behavioral
subject that does not exist in English should be added to the Chinese translation. In
consequence, when the translator encounters such problems in translation practice,
she adds the behavioral subject to the Chinese translation. Two examples are
presented here.
Example 1
Source text: A framework for understanding biliteracy is needed in which to
situate research and teaching; this review attempts to address that need.
Target text: 我们需要一个理解双语读写能力的框架,用于研究和教学;本
文试图解决这一需求。
Example 2
Source text: In this view the learner is ‘credited with having an interlanguage ...
[incorporating] characteristics of both the native and target language of the learner,’9
and errors are seen as clues to the nature of the interlanguage and the process of
second-language acquisition (Hakuta & Cancino, 1977: 297).
Target text: 在这种观点中,人们认为学习者“具有中间语言...[结合]学习者
母语和目的语的特征,”9 并把错误视为中间语性质的线索和二语习得的过程
(Hakuta & Cancino, 1977: 297)。
The two sentences above are both passive sentences and lack behavioral
subjects. In the first example, the translator adds the general subject “我们”, translates
the passive sentence into the active sentence and changes the subject of the source
text into the logical object. If the translator translates “is needed” to “…被需要”, the
readers will be confused. Therefore, amplification is the best way to handle this
problem, which makes the target text conform to idiomatic expressions. In the second
example, “the learner” and “errors” are not the behavioral subject, so the translator
adds the general subject “人们” according to the context and Chinese expression. This
passive sentence is translated into Chinese active sentence, and the subjects “the
learner” and “error” are translated into logical objects. In the translation of these two
sentences, the translator adds the behavioral subject that does not exist in English to
the Chinese translation and translates the passive sentence into active sentence to
conform to the Chinese expression in meaning and syntax, thus achieving the
principle of meaning equivalence.
In the following two examples, the translator is not rigid in word for word
translation, instead, she repeats some words to reach the equivalence of meaning and
22
Analysis of the Cases from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence
make the target text more natural and fluent. Repetition is the most serious taboo in
English, and the words that appear in the front of a sentence are generally omitted in
the end to avoid repetition, but they often need to be added in Chinese translation to
make Chinese sentences complete (Li Yinfang, 2007)20.
Example 3
Source text: Among the 18 research priorities recently established by the US
Department of Education, the first listed is ‘the teaching and learning of reading,
writing, or language skills particularly by non- or limited English speaking students’.
Target text: 在美国教育部最近确定的 18 个研究重点中,首先列出的是“对
阅读、写作或语言技能教学和学习的研究,尤其是对非英语使用者或英语水平有
限的学生的研究”。
Example 4
Source text: In the reading field, Goodman and Goodman (1983) have argued
that ‘people not only learn to read by reading and write by writing but they also learn
to read by writing and write by reading’.
Target text: 在阅读领域,Goodman 和 Goodman(1983)认为“人们不仅通过
阅读学习阅读,通过写作学习写作,而且他们还在写作中学习阅读,在阅读中学
习写作”。
In the third example, there is only one “research” in the source text, but in the
target text, two more “研究” are supplemented to make the target sentence fluent. In
the fourth example, only two “learn” exist in the source text, but four “学习” are
repeated in the target sentence to make the Chinese sentence complete. The addition
here is not a random addition for nothing, but the addition of words that are needed in
the context. The translator achieves functional equivalence between the source text
and the target text by using the translation method of amplification, and the target
readers’ understanding of the target text is similar to that of the source text readers.
4.2.3 Inversion
Inversion is a commonly used method in the translation practice. Inversion refers
to adjusting the word order of the source text according to the way of target language
expression, so as to make the translation as smooth as possible (Feng Qinghua, 2001).
It is sometimes necessary to change the word order in translation due to the
differences in expression between English and Chinese. The general order in English
expression is “subject + predicate + object + adverbial (attributive may be preposition
or postposition)”, while the general order in Chinese is “subject + adverbial +
23
云南民族大学硕士学位论文
predicate + object (attributive preposition)”. It can be seen that the main difference
between the two language lies in the positions of adverbial and attribute. Of course,
there are also special order changes of words, nonetheless, due to limited space, the
translator will only discuss the order change of the adverbial and attribute in this
section. There are four examples, the first two examples are the inversion of
adverbials, and the last two examples are the inversion of attributive.
Example 1
Source text: This review suggests that there is an implicit, and at times explicit,
understanding in the literatures that any particular context of biliteracy is defined by
the intersection of at least three continua - the micro-macro continuum, the
oral-literate continuum, and the monolingual-bilingual continuum - and that any
attempt to understand an instance of biliteracy by attending to only one of these
contextual continua produces at best an incomplete result.
Target text: 本文认为,文献中存在着一种隐含的,但有时又能明确理解的
论点,即任何特定的双语读写能力的语境都是由至少三个连续体——微观-宏观
连续体、口语-读写连续体和单语-双语连续体——的交集所定义,任何试图通过
只关注一个连续体来理解双语读写能力实例的尝试,充其量只能得到一个不完整
的结果。
Example 2
Source text: Genesee (1989), for example, has recently refuted the hypothesis
that children who learn two languages simultaneously have a unitary, undifferentiated
language system, arguing instead that ‘bilingual children develop differentiated
language systems from the beginning and are able to use their developing languages
in contextually sensitive ways’.
Target text: 例如,Genesee(1989)最近反驳了这一假设,即同时学习两种语
言的儿童具有单一无差异的语言系统。他认为“双语儿童从一开始就发展出了有
差异的语言系统,并能够以语境敏感的方式使用他们正在发展的语言”。
In the above two examples, the translator changes the position of adverbial.
Adverbials of manner are put after the modifier in English, which are put before the
predicate in Chinese (Zheng Shiji, 2005). Therefore, in the first example, the
adverbial of manner “by attending to” is postpositive in the source text, which is put
before the predicate and translated to “通过只关注” in the target text. In English,
adverbials that indicate definite time, such as: tomorrow, last week, every day, etc.,
usually place at the end of the sentence; but when they are translated into Chinese,
24
Analysis of the Cases from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence
they often put before the predicate (Zheng Shiji, 2005)183. In the second example, the
adverbial of time “from the beginning” is located at the end of the sentence, which is
placed before the predicate “develop” and translated to “从一开始” in the target
text. The translator uses inversion reasonably in the translation process and abides
by the rules of inversion on the basis of functional equivalence.
Example 3
Source text: The example of Ute oral discourse patterns in English written by
Utes is an example of the oral-literate continuum, which is the second of the defining
continua for contexts of biliteracy.
Target text: 犹特人所写的英语犹他口语语篇模式是口语-读写连续体的一个
案例,也是定义双语读写能力语境连续体的第二个例子。
Example 4
Source text: Working from the premise that a reader actively reconstructs a
message from written language by using language cues, miscue analysis examines
‘errors’ readers make in oral reading as a clue to understanding the reading process.
Target text: 失误分析以读者通过语言线索从书面语言中主动重构信息为前
提,考察读者在阅读过程中所犯的“错误”,以此作为理解阅读过程的线索。
In the third and fourth example, the translator changes the position of attributive.
No matter how long the attributive is in Chinese, it usually precedes the central word
(Wang Dongfeng & Zhang Yuyan, 1993). In the third example, the attributive
“written by Utes” is postpositive, which is moved to the front and translated to “犹他
人所写的” in the target text. In the fourth example, there is an attributive clause
guided by “that”, which is translated to “以读者通过语言线索从书面语言中主动重
构信息” before the head word “the premise” to conform to Chinese expression.
The purpose of adjusting the word order of these four long sentences is to make
them consistent with the way of Chinese expression. The translator applies the
method of inversion to change the word order and get rid of the constraints of the
source text, making the language smoothness to the greatest extent and achieve
functional equivalence.
4.2.4 Division
The translator employs the method of division to deal with the translation of long
and complex sentences. Division is to separate the overly lengthy and complicated
parts of the source sentence into separate sentences in order to make the target
sentence concise and clear (Ou Yangyan, 2005). It is reasonable and even highly
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云南民族大学硕士学位论文
recommended to make bold reorganization of the formal structure of the source text
where appropriate (Nida, 1969)13. Therefore, in the translation of a long English
sentence, the translator analyzes the structure of the sentence, divides the source
sentence into small components, reorganizes it according to the Chinese expression,
and adds appropriate related words to achieve functional equivalence. The translator
will cite the following three sentences as examples.
Example 1
Source text: There is a relatively small but increasing proportion of explicit
attention to (a) bilingualism within the literature on literacy and literacy within the
literature on bilingualism and (b) second or foreign languages within the literatures on
the teaching of reading and writing /and reading and writing within the literatures on
second or foreign language teaching.
Target text: 对于(a)读写文献中的双语现象和双语文献中的读写现象,以
及(b)阅读和写作教学文献中的第二语言或外语,第二语言或外语教学文献中
的读和写,人们关注比例相对较小,但正在增加。
There are 53 words without any punctuation mark in the source text, and there
are two statements including (a) and (b), therefore the translator analyses the sentence
and divides it into short sentences. In this case, multiple modifiers are placed in the
end of the sentence, it is necessary to put them before the nouns according to
idiomatic Chinese expression, so that the readers can understand the target text more
easily.
Example 2
Source text: Lytle and Botel (1988: 12) represented micro and macro levels of
context schematically with successively larger concentric circles consisting of
student; classroom; school as a community; home, neighborhood, town/city, state, and
region; and national, cultural, and multicultural environment.
Target text: Lytle 和 Botel(1988:12)用逐渐增大的同心圆,来表示语境的微观
和宏观层面。这些同心圆包括学生;教室;作为社区的学校;家庭、社区、城镇
/城市、州和地区;以及国家、文化和多元文化的环境。
Although there are just 36 words and no clauses in this example, it will be
difficult to understand if it is translated into one sentence. Therefore, the translator
adopts the method of division, segments this sentence into two Chinese sentences and
reconstructs them according to the way of Chinese expression. In this way, the
translator realizes the syntactic equivalence and readers can better understand the
26
Analysis of the Cases from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence
information when the sentences are short. On the contrary, the message conveyed in
the source text will cause misunderstanding in target language.
Example 3
Source text: In addition, her study (Heath, 1983) of the functions and uses of
literacy in mainstream, black working-class, and white working-class homes in the
southeastern United States clearly reveals not only that speech and literacy are
interrelated in each group, but that differences among the groups are not so much
along the lines of oral versus literate cultures as along the lines of which literacies
most closely resemble those of the school.
Target text: 此外,她(Heath,1983)对美国东南部的主流文化家庭、黑人
工人阶级和白人工人阶级家庭读写功能和用途的研究清楚地表明,不仅每个群体
的语言和读写相互关联,而且不同群体之间的差异与其说是口语文化与读写文化
的差异,不如说是与校园文化最相似的读写文化的差异。
In this case, there are 69 words with 2 object clauses guided by “that” and 1
attributive clause introduced by “which”, this sentence is so long and complex, if the
translator just translates them mechanically, it will lead to ambiguity in the
understanding of the readers. Therefore, the translator employs the method of division
and adds some punctuation to make the target text idiomatic in Chinese expression.
As the translator mentioned above, the translator naturally transforms the long
sentences to short ones. The translation also realizes the syntactic equivalence.
27
云南民族大学硕士学位论文
5 Summary
This chapter is the summary of the whole translation report. The translator took
Hornberger’s academic paper Continua of Biliteracy as the translation material and
analyzed the examples extracted from the academic paper under the guidance of
functional equivalence theory. Eventually, some specific translation methods were
found to be effectively applied in solving the problems in the translation of academic
paper. The translator spent several months doing the translation, and finally
completed it. In the course of the entire translation practice, she gained some
experience. In this chapter, the translator would summarize her gains and limitations
in the translation, hoping to inspire other translators when they translate similar text.
She also benefited in the process of summary, which would help her become a more
qualified translator in the future.
5.1 Gains from the Translation
The translator’s gains in the translation process include: acquiring a wide range
of knowledge in her daily life, practicing writing frequently, applying theories to
translation practice and revising with patience. All these gains come from the
translator’s whole translation process, and she holds a firm belief that she will
benefit from them in the future.
The translator finds that it is necessary to read more and dabble in more aspects
of knowledge in daily life. At the beginning of the translation of Continua of
Biliteracy, the translator felt very difficult. Subsequently, the translator acquired
some background knowledge and relevant expressions of terminologies by reading
some parallel texts, which enabled the translator to understand the source text better.
The translator realizes that one must practice writing frequently, cultivate the
ability to express oneself in Chinese and English, and train translation skills
continually to become a qualified translator. When translating, sometimes the
translator could understand the source text, but did not know how to express it in
Chinese. In this case, she translated these sentences into different versions, read and
deliberated repeatedly, and finally chose a target version. As an old saying goes,
practice makes perfect. After finishing the translation of Continua of Biliteracy, the
translator realizes that only through continuous practice and training can the
translation ability be improved.
Theory is the basis of translation practice. Under the guidance of functional
28
Summary
equivalence theory, the translator completes the translation practice. At the
beginning of the translation, the translator basically translated the source text word
by word, which made the translation obscure. Later, with the guidance of functional
equivalence theory, the translator selected the above four translation methods to
improve the translation. She reorganized the formal structure of the source text in
appropriate places, and modified the translated text with expressions consistent with
those in Chinese to achieve the equivalence of meaning. By doing so, the translator
acquires the experience that she can improve the quality of translation by keeping
the guiding theory in her mind. Therefore, in the future, she will read more works of
translation theories and constantly apply translation theories to practice so as to
improve her translation ability.
Last but not least, the translation is not done overnight. Although the translator
read the target text over and over again, there were still some problems. Therefore,
she communicated with other translators and learnt their translation experience. In
this process, she got some enlightenment which helped her revise the translation.
Furthermore, continuous proofreading also helped the translation to reach the
standard of functional equivalence.
5.2 Problems to Be Solved
Although the translator gains much in the translation practice, there are still
some problems to be solved and much to learn. Problems mentioned here contain the
inadequate use of computer-assisted translation software, and translationese still
exists in the translation.
The translator did not make reasonable use of computer-assisted translation
software, which resulted in spending much time to ensure that some nouns or noun
phrases, such as “barrier”, “biliterate individual”, “dissimilar structure” and
“immersion program”, were translated consistently in the context. This situation could
be avoided if the translator used computer-assisted translation software to help with
the translation.
Translationese still exists in the target text. In the source text, the meaning of
some words such as “literate” and “twin” are ambiguous and not easy to be
understood. The translator has striven to translate these words based on the source
text and its context, but the target text still needs to be further amended. In addition,
the translator has striven to make the translation conform to the expression of
Chinese, but modification is still needed.