论文范文:基于一篇经济学期刊论文的汉英翻译报告

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 10:02
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
《平台企业价值创造的前因构型:一项模糊集定性比较分析》是一篇经济学 期刊论文,研究平台企业价值创造的关键因素。本翻译报告借助克里斯蒂安·诺 德提出的文献翻译和工具翻
《平台企业价值创造的前因构型:一项模糊集定性比较分析》是一篇经济学
期刊论文,研究平台企业价值创造的关键因素。本翻译报告借助克里斯蒂安·诺
德提出的文献翻译和工具翻译策略,对其汉译英进行探讨。
原文从实证层面分析了平台企业价值创造的关键因素,具有很强的现实意义。
用词严谨,多术语和晦涩经济概念,因而部分使用经济隐喻加以说明;描述实验
方法和结论分析时用语直接,结构清晰。多为无主句和主动句,部分重复描述;
其概念介绍相对松散,多为小句组合;同时原文部分内容缺少总结性陈述,逻辑
稍显松散。为了让目标读者更清晰地理解这篇经济论文,本报告采用诺德提出的
功能翻译理论,针对不同的文本特点和功能,采取具体的翻译方法。该理论涵盖
文献翻译和工具翻译策略,前者突出原文的不同方面比如语言、文化等,后者则
强调译文通过不同方式实现原文相对应的功能。因此,本报告在分析原文的基础
上,从经济术语、隐喻、特定句式、和逻辑衔接不当之处四个维度,结合翻译目
的,通过相应的翻译方法展开案例分析。
报告发现,诺德的文献翻译和工具翻译对经济学期刊论文汉译英具有很强的指
导意义。其一,文献翻译涵盖的翻译方法比如直译、注释性翻译等方式,适用于
经济术语的英译,以及某些需要适当加注的经济学专业概念的英译;其二,文献
翻译和工具翻译可以结合指导经济隐喻的翻译:文献翻译保留经济隐喻意象,同
时保证意义准确;而工具翻译则舍弃隐喻意象取其含义,直接译出原文主要内容;
其三,工具翻译可以指导本篇原文特定句式的翻译,通过添加主语、转换句式,
删除冗余信息以及合译小句等方式,达到原文同等功能。其四,工具翻译可以指
导逻辑衔接不当内容的翻译,通过添加总结性陈述和逻辑连接词的方式,让译文
前后衔接更为紧密,凸显学术性。
本报告在总结经济学期刊论文特征的基础上,采用诺德的文献翻译和工具翻译
策略,分别从经济术语、隐喻、特定句式、和逻辑衔接不当之处四个维度展开案
例分析,总结出该理论指导下经济学期刊论文的一些翻译方法,以期准确地传达
原文含义,同时又保留其学术论文行文风格,希望对同类型翻译有所借鉴。
关键词:经济学期刊论文翻译,克里斯蒂安·诺德,文献翻译,工具翻译
I
ABSTRACT
ABSTRACT
 Platform Enterprise Value Creation Antecedent Configuration: A Fuzzy-set
Comparison Analysis is a journal paper in economics. This translation report applies the
documentary and instrumental translation proposed by Christiane Nord to explore the
C-E translation of a journal paper in economics.
 The source text analyzes the key factors influencing the value creation of platform
enterprises, which can be applied in real commerce. Economic terms and metaphors are
chosen to explain arcane economic concepts and demonstrate professionalism. Direct
and structural layout is the main style of this source journal article. Sentence patterns
like non-subject sentences, active sentences, symmetric redundant expressions and
scattered minor sentences are used frequently in describing the experiment and result.
Besides, some part of the source text is less cohesive as a journal paper, owing to the
lack of generalizing information.
 The functional translation theory, proposed by Christiane Nord, stresses that
different translation methods should be adopted in accordance with specific source text
features and functions. Documentary translation and instrumental translation work as
the two major translation types or strategies. The former emphasizes different aspects
like the language and culture of the source text, while the latter endeavors to achieve the
original function in the target text. Therefore, this report conducts the case analysis
through four dimensions: the translation of economic terms, metaphors, sentence
patterns and less cohesive content, based on the source text features and theoretical
basis.
 From the case analysis, this report reveals that documentary and instrumental
translation are of strong guidance for the translation of economic journal papers. First,
literal and philological translation included in documentary translation can be applied in
the translation of economic terms. Second, the combination of documentary translation
and instrumental translation is more effective for the translation of economic metaphors.
One is to keep the original image while maintaining its denotation, and the other is to
stress the meaning while abandoning the image. Third, instrumental translation can
guide the translation of particular sentence patterns. Specific methods like adding
subjects,restructuring the sentences, omitting redundant information and combining
II
ABSTRACT
minor sentences can be applied to achieve the original function in the translated text.
Fourth, instrumental translation can guide the translation of less cohesive content in this
journal paper through adding generalizing information and logical conjunctions.
This report, adopting Nord's documentary and instrumental translation, conducts
case analysis from four perspectives: economic terms, metaphors, sentence patterns and
less cohesive content based on a journal paper in economics. Several specific translation
methods are summed up, which facilitates delivering the original meaning accurately
while maintaining the academic writing style. Therefore, it is expected to be supportive
for later similar translation practice.
Key words: the translation of a journal paper in economics, Christiane Nord,
documentary translation, instrumental translation
III
Contents
Contents
Chapter One Introduction ............................................................................................. 1
1.1 Task Description..................................................................................................1
1.2 Translation Process..............................................................................................2
1.3 Report Description...............................................................................................5
Chapter Two Source Text Analysis................................................................................ 7
2.1 Overview of Journal Papers in Economics..........................................................7
2.2 Content of the Source Text ..................................................................................8
2.3 Features of the Source Text .................................................................................9
2.3.1 Various Economic Terms........................................................................... 9
2.3.2 Frequent Use of Economic Metaphors.................................................... 10
2.3.3 Particular Sentence Patterns .....................................................................11
2.3.4 Less Cohesive Content ............................................................................ 12
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework ..................................................................... 14
3.1 Christiane Nord's Functional Translation Theory..............................................14
3.2 Key Terms of Christiane Nord's Functional Translation Theory.......................16
3.2.1 Documentary Translation ........................................................................ 17
3.2.2 Instrumental Translation.......................................................................... 18
3.3 Guidance of This Theory to This Project ..........................................................19
Chapter Four Case Study ............................................................................................ 22
4.1 Translation of Economic Terms.........................................................................22
 4.1.1 Literal Translation of Economic Terms................................................... 22
 4.1.2 Philological Translation of Economic Terms .......................................... 24
4.2 Translation of Economic Metaphors .................................................................26
 4.2.1 Keeping the Original Images................................................................... 27
 4.2.2 Abandoning the Original Images............................................................. 28
4.3 Translation of Particular Economic Sentence Patterns......................................30
 4.3.1 Adding Subjects to Non-subject Sentences ............................................. 30
 4.3.2 Converting Active Sentences into Passive Sentences.............................. 35
 4.3.3 Omitting Symmetric Redundant Expressions ......................................... 37
 4.3.4 Combining Scattered Descriptive Sentences........................................... 39
IV
Contents
4.4 Translation of Less Cohesive Content...............................................................42
4.4.1 Adding Generalizing Information............................................................ 42
4.4.2 Adding Logical Conjunctions.................................................................. 46
Chapter Five Conclusion.............................................................................................. 48
5.1 Major Findings ..................................................................................................48
5.2 Limitations and Suggestions..............................................................................50
Acknowledgements....................................................................................................... 52
References...................................................................................................................... 53
Appendix I Source Text................................................................................................ 55
Appendix II Translated Text........................................................................................ 69
V
Chapter One Introduction
Chapter One Introduction
The 21st century marks a time when economic growth plays a rather important role.
With the emergence of newly-constructed economic platforms, a growing number of
experts, even ordinary people, are taking an interest in the platform economy. The latest
two decades witnessed rapid growth in the number of economic studies and
commentaries. Under this general background, this project-based Chinese to English
translation report originates from the platform economy, one of the newly emerging
economies. This journal paper concentrates on the value creation of platform enterprises
in various ways. In translating this economic journal article, the translator encounters
several challenges. Through solving these difficulties, this translation report is formed
with specific cases to demonstrate the feasibility of documentary and instrumental
translation in economic journal paper translation. This first chapter provides a general
introduction to the task, translation process and report structure.
1.1 Task Description
This academic paper in economics is written by Ying Teng (School of Management
and Economics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu
China), and Huayong Du (School of Management, China West Normal University,
Nanchong, China) in the year of 2019. The source economic journal paper covers a total
number of 15,051 Chinese characters. This project was received on 18th October 2019,
with one month as the due time to complete the translation.
This translated journal article is for both professional readers and ordinary readers
after discussions with the original author since the translated journal paper is about to be
published in a certain foreign magazine. Professional readers may include economists,
researchers and even graduates in economics. Ordinary readers mainly refer to those
without any economic expertise but have an interest in economics. As a journal paper in
economics, the source text aims to unfold the principles for platform enterprises to
create value. It is known that professional readers may dig into this article for economic
information. Also, ordinary readers without any economic knowledge may look for
some related information in this article, like what platform enterprises today are the
most famous ones and so on. Thus, the chosen corresponding terms and academic
1
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
sentences must be proper to assist the reading of both professional readers and ordinary
readers.
 Mainly two difficulties arise during the translation of this journal paper. First, the
strong technicality demands the translator to deliver the translated text in the same
academic manner. It means the reading of parallel texts, the choice of professional terms
and the layout of the whole source journal paper should be completed strictly. Its
technicality determines that the translated style should be serious and distinct. Both
linguistic and stylistic difficulties challenge the translator. Second, the source journal
paper is about platform enterprises with lots of professional economic terms and
expressions. Under this circumstance, the translator should acquire as much knowledge
in economics as possible, so that the key terms and expressions can be translated
correctly. How these two difficulties are conquered is provided in "translation process".
 The significance of the Chinese to English translation task is rather palpable. As an
academic economic article, it is relatively fresh and pertinent to the current rapid
development of e-commerce, which means it is rather significant and practical to be
translated for readers from other languages and cultures. To demonstrate the
significance and purpose in detail, it can be listed into three general aspects. First, for
ordinary readers, it is a good chance to better appreciate the current economic
developing stage and situation of the Chinese platform economy, which is supportive to
keep up with the international development pace and integrate into the global economy.
Besides, for professionals majoring in economics, this translated paper is expected to
assist them to understand more about the Chinese economy, expecting to propel their
own economies in a way. Second, a great deal of knowledge has been acquired by the
translator during the entire translation process. It ranges from the terms specifically used
in economics to the negotiation with the original writers of the source text for the
better-translated version. Third, for the authors of the source text, the negotiation
process and the translated paper are supposed to instigate their writing in English to be
better consistent with English readers' way of thinking and writing.
1.2 Translation Process
As this translation project is based on an economic journal paper that the translator
was not so familiar with, it was necessary to perform a thorough pre-translation
preparation. And then with all the needed materials such as economic terms and parallel
2
Chapter One Introduction
texts being ready, the translator began translating. During this time some problems still
emerge to be solved together with its writers. And at last, the quality control and review
were finally completed that symbolled the final version of this translated text.
First, the pre-translation generally contained two aspects: the textual preparation
and interpersonal preparation. Textual preparation comprised text style identification,
glossary selection, parallel texts collecting and reading as well as translation theory
selection. The interpersonal preparation was meant to negotiate with the source text
authors, including the translating style confirmation, delivering mode and schedule.
From its writers and source of discipline, it was not difficult to figure out that this
academic paper that pertains to economics, features in professional words and phrases,
even some sentence patterns were exceptionally used in economics. In this condition,
the translator must keep the translated version as serious, complete and concise as the
original one. After that, the translator went to the library to search for serviceable
information, like economic terms, concepts and common equations along with symbols,
which were collected and checked in an excel chart for later use as some of it shown in
the following Table 1-1.
Table 1-1 Prepared Terms
Chinese 绝对优势 逆向选择 选择成本 需 求 的 弧 弹
非对称的信
平均产品
资 β
English absolute
advantage adverse
choice alternative
cost arc elasticity
of demand asymmetric
information average
product β
With rudimentary knowledge in economics and paper translation ready for the big
work, the functional translation theory of Christiane Nord was finally chosen as the
general guidance. This theory distinguished different applications to disparate texts, in
which the documentary translation and instrumental translation were indeed suitable to
guide the translation of practical texts like this ST. Furthermore, the translator
communicated with the source text authors to confirm the target readers of this
translation project. It turns out that the target readers of this translated journal paper
include professional readers who can clearly understand the theme and practicality of
this journal paper, as well as ordinary readers who are just interested in it. It signifies
that the translated text should satisfy both of their requisitions while reading. Also, the
3
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
translator delivered certain translated content to the writers for checking whether this
translation style was proper or not, and whether the translated writing styles were
properly applied or poorly arranged. In addition, for professional materials, certain
economic glossaries and common economic concepts were given to the translator from
the ST authors. Because like Nord put that to take on the best-translated version, the
translator should negotiate with ST authors to fathom specific translation briefings like
objectives and so on (Tian & Zhao, 2018: 86). Thus, this translation finally began.
 Second, during the translation, the main body of the ST was translated following
the consequence: introduction, literature review, method description, analysis and
conclusion. The abstract was translated at last since it contained the gist of this journal
paper. Only when the translator fully understood the meaning and logicality of the ST,
can the excerpt be translated accurately and properly. During this time period, several
difficulties like the reorganization of sentences, the translation of metaphors, etc., still
challenged the translator. However, fortuitously, they were all settled in the end.
Problems like repeated expressions even the improper layout of some paragraphs
perplexed the translator. Except for these obstacles, other challenges like the usage of
metaphors in economic texts, which were not so often used in common writings, also
created barriers for the translator. Therefore, after detailed discussions with original
writers, the text was adjusted to some extent without changing its original meaning and
accuracy of its data and research results.
 Third, in the post-translation process, the translator checked whether the economic
terms were consistent in the whole TT to make sure every necessary sentence was
translated for the complacency of the TT. After that, the translator used Ginger, an
English grammatical error-checking application to correct some syntactical errors,
completing the proofreading. Besides, the whole text consistency checking with its
original authors has been done. During this time period, this translated journal paper had
been revised four times, and each time only made it better and more mature until the
final TT was settled.
 At last, the translated paper format was completed. Since this source text is an
economic article and is expected to be published in a certain foreign economic journal,
it must be scholarly in format. Therefore, the font and size of the words, the line spacing,
and tables and charts are settled finally. As an economic journal paper, it should not only
be readable in language, rich and accurate in content, logical and formal in style, but
4
Chapter One Introduction
also methodical and neat in appearance. Therefore, the last formal arrangement is
necessary.
1.3 Report Description
 As the world changes at a quick pace, economies of various forms spring. Platform
economy stands among them. To better and comprehensively understand how the
economy works worldwide, it is necessary for us to fully unfold the myth of platform
economy. This Chinese to English translation report, based on a journal paper in
economics, analyzes how to translate journal papers in economics. Therefore, under this
circumstance, this translation report is of real importance.
 Chapter One gives a general background description of this translation report. It
includes three parts. The report description states the source and significance of this
translation practice. Task description introduces the background information of this
source text, original authors, target readers, and translation challenges. After that, the
pre-translation, in-translation and post-translation and proof-reading are developed
during translation process.
 Chapter Two centers on the features of the source text from four perspectives. In
this chapter, it is found that as an economic article, the source text features in
professional economic terms, metaphors, and certain sentence patterns. Also, the layout
of the source text is strict, although it is less cohesive in some parts of it.
 Chapter Three articulates a thorough introduction to functional translation theory
proposed by Christiane Nord. Two major translation types: documentary translation and
instrumental translation, also known as two translation strategies, are included in the
functional translation theory. Moreover, the rationality and feasibility of this translation
theory are to be specified in this chapter.
 Chapter Four is placed at the heart of this report. It explores a detailed introduction
to how this theory guides the translator through this whole process with specific and
typical examples to achieve a better-translated text version. In this chapter, the cases are
classified into four dimensions, containing the translation of economic terms, metaphors,
sentence patterns and less cohesive content. Through these cases, the guidance of this
translation theory to ST is specified in detail.
 At last, Chapter Five concludes this report. It summarizes all the key points in this
report, ranging from the features of academic papers in economics, the guidance of
5
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Nord's functional translation theory and the effective translation solutions to the ST
translation challenges. Additionally, it presents this report's limitations and suggestions
for further discussion on this topic.
Altogether, these five chapters carry out a relatively thorough introduction to
economic journal paper translation, applying the functional translation theory of
Christiane Nord. This chapter presents a general lead-in to this translation report,
ranging from an introduction to this translation project to the translation process of this
academic paper in economics, named Platform Enterprise Value Creation Antecedent
Configuration: A Fuzzy-set Comparison Analysis.
6
Chapter Two Source Text Analysis
Chapter Two Source Text Analysis
A complete translation report requires a thorough analysis of the source text to
better serve the translation purpose. And a comprehensive source text analysis enables
the translator to better deliver the translated text. In light of the source text analysis, an
overview of texts in economics, and the ST's content and features are presented as
follows.
2.1 Overview of Journal Papers in Economics
Economic journal papers explore and analyze a certain sort of economic activity to
discover its inner connection and its impact on the entire economics. Therefore, it must
explore the regularity with a thorough theory and scientific reasoning, coming up with
new hypotheses or sights to solve this economic problem (Yuan, 1989: 28). Thus, the
three characteristics (persuasiveness, brevity and logicality) can commendably
demonstrate the features of economic journal papers.
Economic journal papers are of strong persuasiveness. Reasoning, experiments,
theories and summaries all support this perspective (Zhao, 1992: 63). An academic
paper is the analysis and reasoning of the authors on a specific economic activity. It
proposes a solution, expecting to guide further researches and realistic practices.
Therefore, journal papers in economics hold their own purposes through the process of
"raising the problem, analyzing the problem and solving the problem". During this
whole process, several theories (even interdisciplinary theories sometimes) can be
applied to better support its positivity and rationality (Yuan, 1989: 28). And at its last
part, the economic journal paper sums up all its results to testify if this economic journal
paper satisfies the expected outcomes. Lastly, the conclusion ensures that all these
applications of theories and experiments have contributed to the realization of the
hypotheses.
Economic journal papers are all brief. As an academic paper, it should be clear
enough to explain all the major points. Meanwhile, it should also be brief enough to be
more concise and save time for both the writers and readers. Therefore, many acronyms
emerge in economic articles, such as FOB for "free on board", GDP for "gross domestic
product" and so on. This characteristic demands the translator to make sure the
7
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
translated text is concise while conveying its original message thoroughly.
A proficient academic journal paper should be logically written. The logical
paradigm of an academic paper should consist of three key aspects: an explicit topic,
sufficient arguments, and sensible reasoning (Sun, 2009: 48). It is clear that a complete
academic paper constitutes three pillars as mentioned above. Only in this way can an
academic paper be formal and well-prepared and the readers understand it.
On the whole, an economic journal paper is supposed to cover the economic logic,
be able to analyze past literature critically, and to recognize problems when they arise
(Nikolov, 2020: 2). All these factors explored in the economic journal paper should
demonstrate the knowledge and efforts of its author(s). Therefore, an economic journal
paper requires evidence, literature, economic explanation and general approaches to the
issues from an analytic perspective (Nikolov, 2020: 2).
2.2 Content of the Source Text
This source text is a journal paper in economics with a strict academic structure. It
finds the asymmetric causal relationship in the value creation process of platform
enterprises at the empirical level. Through providing more microscopic theoretical
insights for promoting the strategic management of platform enterprises, it is based on
the logical starting point of sustainable competitive advantages. Therefore, the source
text is a typical economic journal paper with empirical researches and results.
Undoubtedly, it consists of five major parts: introducing the topic and hypotheses, citing
preceding literature, conducting researches to prove the feasibility of hypotheses and
presenting the results, conclusion and further insights.
This source journal paper is divided into five sections. The first part (introduction)
gives a general impression of certain professional terms and concepts like platform
economy. Some questions like "how do the platform enterprises create value in current
economies" are also included in this part. Then, the second section (literature review)
backtracks its theoretical reference and some inference, together with several current
types of research on the strategic management of platform enterprises. Part three
explains the methods of exploring "how the two factors (efficiency and innovation)
affect enterprises' value-creation". After that, the fourth section presents an empirical
analysis and results of its research through the verification of necessity and two
configuration modes. At last, the fifth one concludes the whole paper with discussions
8
Chapter Two Source Text Analysis
on further studies.
This economic journal paper is expected to promote the theories of value creation
and platform enterprise strategic management. First, through theoretical derivation and
empirical analysis, it proves that platform construction and user participation are the
core elements that affect the value creation of platform enterprises. Second, the process
of platform enterprises to obtain sustainable competitive advantages follows the dual
value creation logic. Third, an asymmetrical causality exists between platform
construction and user participation and platform enterprise value creation. To sum up, it
verifies the theoretical inference and analyzes the antecedent configuration, key factors
and paths that influence the value creation and value acquisition "success" and "failure".
Together it provides a higher and finer-grained understanding for deepening the value
creation theory. Moreover, the conclusion of the configuration analysis drawn by this
journal paper exerts a strong guiding significance for the platform business practice.
Consequently, it is of strong practicability for real economy.
Given what was written above, logicality and professionalism may be obtained in
this economic journal article. Afterward, the next section presents a detailed
introduction to its specific features.
2.3 Features of the Source Text
In the above section, an overview and certain typical features of academic journal
papers in economics are discussed. Nevertheless, just as there are no two identical
things in the world, each article has its own features to some extent. Therefore, to better
understand the source text as well as to better apply the translation theory to complete
the translation project, a detailed introduction to the features of the source text is
necessary for this subsection.
2.3.1 Various Economic Terms
"Term", is defined by Merrian-Webster as "a word or expression that has a precise
meaning in some uses or is peculiar to a science, art, profession, or subject". It is
obvious that terms can be used to describe a certain subject with a precise meaning.
Certainly, the ST as an economic journal paper, embraces various terms. Therefore,
economic terms are the terms in the subject field of economics. It is a word or phrase
that designates a specific economic concept.
9
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
This journal paper covers a number of economic terms. It is informative with
strong professionalism in particular fields. Also, it is logical with contact structures and
brief sentences within limited space. It covers many economic terms like “持续承诺”
(continual commitment), “市场占有率” (market share), “非对称因果关系”
(asymmetric causality) and so forth. These professional terms are applied to
demonstrate the rigorousness and professionalism of the journal paper. Within these
terms, some are commonly recognized by both professional and ordinary readers, while
some are just known by professional readers.
Generally speaking, economic terms should be translated into their corresponding
forms in English accurately and precisely. Therefore, two translation methods are
applied in accordance with economic terms in this source journal paper. The specific
application is to be explained in the fourth chapter through case analysis.
2.3.2 Frequent Use of Economic Metaphors
A metaphor is an imaginative way of describing a thing by referring to something
else that is the same in a particular way, explained by Collins dictionary. From its
definition, it is not hard to acquire the function of metaphors in economics. Metaphors
are particularly important to elucidate economic concepts in a vivid and intelligible way.
This source text embodies several metaphors to explain obscure economic
phenomena. In economics, various economic entities are endowed with life animation,
especially like human beings. The human body metaphor reflects the connection
between economics and human beings. The part of economics narrates the
corresponding part of human beings, like "two legs", "iron bowl" etc. (Tan & Chen,
2010: 87). In this text, some obscure economic phenomena are expressed in metaphors,
so that the readers can understand them more vividly and straightforwardly. Besides,
some of the metaphors are already commonly recognized in economics, signifying it is
quite common to read in both Chinese and English economic articles.
Therefore, metaphors in this source text can be divided into two types: one is
commonly recognized by both Chinese and English readers, the other only exists in
Chinese. As for the translation of metaphors in this text, the translator also presents two
methods respectively, to better convey the core meaning, as well as some of the images
of them.
10
Chapter Two Source Text Analysis
2.3.3 Particular Sentence Patterns
 As described in the above section, this source text, as a journal paper, conducts
experiments and presents results through scientific methods and analysis. It mainly
adopts the fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) method through
sampling, questionnaire and empirical analysis. In this process, non-subject sentences,
active sentences, and scattered sentences are applied in conceptual description and result
presentation, and some symmetric redundant expressions are used in step organization.
 First, some of the method descriptions start with Chinese verbs, denoting that the
sentences are without subjects. Non-subject sentence signifies that the subject of this
sentence is not explicit but hidden among the acts conducted by the operators, or the
subject is not necessary to be specified in this sentence. For example, "随后,在数据采
样的基础上运用 fsQCA 验证了前文的理论推断,并实证发现了‘促进’和‘抑制’
平台企业价值创造的路径构型和关键因素". It can be envisaged that this sentence
demonstrates a strong sense of action. Sentences like this one are frequently seen in the
experiment description since this source text is providing a suggestion for platform
enterprises, expecting to be of practical reference.
 Second, active sentences arise while making conclusions and present results in this
source text. Active sentences always apply personal subjects and impersonal objects. It
can be used to express subjectivity and efforts put by the writers. This source text
employs a great many active sentences to describe its experiment results and analysis.
Active sentences are a specific sentence pattern with personal subjects. It means that the
subject is the operator of this act while the object is the receiver of this act. Therefore,
this economic paper uses lots of active sentences to demonstrate the experiment and the
result. On the one hand, it presents sentences in a smoother way for Chinese reading.
On the other hand, this kind of expression leaves the key information at the end of
sentences, making it different from that of English writing.
 Third, some part applies symmetric repetitive expressions or words with the same
meaning to be regular in form and rhythmical in reading. However, it may sound
redundant to a certain extent after being translated into English. for instance, “开辟新
市场和设立新组织”, this phrase uses the character "新" twice, and the two verbs “开
辟” and “设立” cover the same meaning. Although it can highlight the meaning of
"new", it still detours. For one thing, it is expected to be more expressive for reading
and writing, denoting the conventional use of symmetric expressions. For another thing,
11
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
as an economic journal article, it tries to cover as much information as possible.
However, some repetition is not necessary even redundant, because no fresh meaning is
proposed and the sentences become longer owing to the repetition.
Fourth, this academic journal paper in economics also boasts certain scattered
minor sentences. A fragmented, elliptical, or incomplete sentence or clause that still
conveys meaning is called a minor sentence. It is imperative to demonstrate certain
professional economic concepts in ST. For example, the functions of the platform are so
difficult and complex that ST prefers to use a series of minor sentences in a scattered
way to describe them. An economic concept like "demand matching" in the source text,
covers two sentences in three lines to fully elucidate its core meaning. In this situation,
these small sentences should be condensed while translating into English. There are two
reasons for that. On the one hand, English sentences habituate accessory grammatical
structures like clauses, to make the major sentences more accurate and concise. On the
other hand, for target readers, concepts expressed in this way are more straightforward
to understand since the core meaning is put at the center of this translated sentence.
2.3.4 Less Cohesive Content
The original framework should be strictly followed so as to demonstrate its
professionalism as an academic paper. Cohesion is semantic, referring to relations of
meaning that exist within the text (Halliday, 1976: 4). It is used as an explicit linguistic
device to signal relations between sentences and parts of texts. As an economic journal
paper, the ST is expected to present its main content in the introduction to demonstrate
the cohesion as a journal paper. However, this source text does not cover all the five
parts in introduction owning to its lack of cohesion among sections.
Besides, in the description of analysis and summary, the writers present reliable
results based on their experiments. Many of the specific results are just listed one by
one, without a general overview sentence to guide the readers to grasp the core ideas
directly. Also, some sentences are combined loosely without any logical conjunctions,
which is commonly perceived as minor sentences in Chinese. For example, there is a
whole paragraph to describe the differences between traditional enterprises and platform
enterprises. But a total of seven specific differences are listed within one paragraph only,
with each one being presented in more than one sentence. It is not hard to perceive that
this whole paragraph is overly long and complex. In this way, the readers may be
12
Chapter Two Source Text Analysis
hindered by these long and dense sentences. To enable readers more easily and quickly
catch the core differences of traditional and platform enterprises, logical conjunctions or
linking parts need to be added.
Also, this source text's introduction spends one paragraph describing the general
steps and overall content of the whole journal article. However, this paragraph is lacking
wording cohesion and the general introduction to section 4 is not included. Therefore, in
terms of these two situations stated above, the translator rendered the translated text to
comply with the academic writing style as much as possible.
To sum up, Chapter Two encompasses four features of the source text, including
various economic terms, economic metaphors, sentence patterns and less cohesive
content as a journal paper. To render the translation of this academic journal paper, the
translator should complete the translation considering its comprehensive features both
as an economic text and as an academic paper. Therefore, it signifies that the translator
should take all related factors into consideration. To better achieve this object, this
report applies the functional translation theory proposed by Christiane Nord, which is to
be disclosed in the next chapter.
13
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework
Translation theory is remarkably necessary and significant for translation. Liu
Miqing (2005: 2) stresses the importance of translation theory during translating that the
translation theory aims to guide translation based on the inner connection and
underlying characteristics drawn from real practice. And Andrew Chesterman and
Emma Wagner (2002: 4) underscore the guiding role of translation theories for
translators, enlightening that many translators would be pleasant to have some
translation practical and realistic advice and guidelines. Nord's functional translation
theory is specified in this chapter to better enhance the fairness and rationality of this
translation report.
3.1 Christiane Nord's Functional Translation Theory
In 1971, the monograph Objective Approach to Translation Criticism, written by
Katharina Reiss, first proposed the notion of "integral communicative performance".
After that, Hans Josef Vermeer (once taught by Reiss) tried to bridge the gap between
theory and practice. He (2001: 29) once explained in his book Framework for a General
Translation Theory that translating is not just about linguistics since linguistics has not
yet formulated the right questions to tackle some problems in translation.
Vermeer denominates "Skopostheorie" to indicate the theory of purposeful action.
Until now, we have come to the point of skopos or purpose. Then it must be necessary
to demonstrate Christiane Nord's functional translation theory. As Chen (2012: 93)
affirms that the functional teleology in Nord's time is no longer a simple functional
theory. It highlights the fact that the ST and the TT belong to distinct and specific
cultural environments.
The functional translation school in Germany has generated various great
translators and scholars, such as those mentioned above. Generally speaking, the text
typology of Katharina Reiss, Skopostheorie of Hans J. Vermeer, the function plus
loyalty of Christiane Nord are excellent representatives.
Second, this chapter recommends the theory proponent, namely Christiane Nord.
Christiane Nord has imparted knowledge in many universities, and published about
eighty papers and monopolies in translation. Also, she once worked as an editor and
14
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework
advisor in many academic magazines like The Translator and Sendebar. Christiane
Nord, as the illustrious representative of functional translation theory, starts the second
generation of German functionalism and makes a great contribution to functional
translation theory. Nord summarizes a different kind of German functional translation
theory and re-examines and clarifies the key concepts of it.
 As Pym (1993: 184) explains that Nord's translation approaches aim at providing
criteria for classification of texts and guidelines for assessing the quality of translation.
In addition, she combines the key points made by the first generation of German
functionalism with her new one: function plus loyalty. Also, she stresses the role of
teaching translation students in translation practice, namely, the translation brief. Also,
she says that the significance of source text analysis and the functionalist hierarchy of
translation problems should be noticed.
 The third part is about the major points proposed by Christiane Nord. Nord forms
her functional translation theory under the influence of her mentor Katharina Reiss. Her
translation theories are clearly demonstrated in two famous books: Translation as A
Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained and Text Analysis in
Translation: Theory, Methodology, and Didactic Application of a Model for
Translation-oriented Text Analysis. The two principal types of translation processes, or
strategies: documentary translation and instrumental translation, further improve the
functional translation theory (Nord, 2007: 43). Documentary translation provides a set
of interactions, assisting the ST transmitter to communicate with TT receivers. This
interaction is based on the source text culture. While instrumental translation intends to
create an instrument between the ST transmitters and TT receivers. This instrument
centers on (certain aspects of) the target text language and culture (Tian & Zhao, 2018:
5). These two translation types will be explained in detail in the next section.
 Since the first appearance of functional translation theory in China in 1987,
numerous articles about this theory have turned up, mainly incorporating translation
definition, standard, teaching, strategy and literary and non-literary translation (Chen &
Wang, 2010: 223). Many scholars and experts are getting interested in functional
translation theory and study it. That is why it is gradually known by more people. In
2018 an interview with Christiane Nord clarified several answers to people's confusion
about functional translation theory like the difference between systemic functional
linguistics and functional translation theory in Germany. She explains that functional
15
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
translation theory is a top-down processing method, regarding translation as
communication among people based on the environment, acts and so on (Tian & Zhao,
2018: 2). Zhang Meifang, an expert in translation field, also the translator of Nord's
Translation as A Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained 《( 译有所为》
in Chinese), explains that under the functional translation theory, the translator should
first ascertain the objective function (documentary translation and instrumental
translation), then differentiate between the significant content of the source text and the
content to be adjusted for the target readers (Zhang, 2005: 65).
Nord introduces four functions (2007: 40) as referential, expressive, appellative and
phatic functions. The former three ones come from Bühler while the last one is
specifically proposed by Nord. The instrumental functions are based on the four
perspectives. Nord (2007: 45) explains that the functions influence the translation
because if the translated text is to maintain the original functions, the language must be
rendered according to the rules of the target language. These functions provide many
references for the application of instrumental translation while adopting different
methods.
 From what mentioned above it is known that Nord stresses the role of source text
in documentary translation, including text style and the translation purpose. While in
instrumental translation, she highlights the understanding of the target readers. Also,
Edwin Gentzler (2004: 70) stresses that one of the most important shifts in translation
theory over the past twenty years is the shift from the source text-oriented theories to
target text-oriented theories. It is apparent that instrumental translation contributes a lot
to the shift. In any case, the translator cannot translate texts without analyzing the
translation purpose and its target readers first.
3.2 Key Terms of Christiane Nord's Functional Translation Theory
Generally speaking, in light of Reiss' text analysis and House's mode for
translation quality assessment, documentary translation and instrumental translation
were elucidated by Nord. The previous one is to create a document functioning in
communication through the source text and source culture, while the latter focuses on
constructing a tool to communicate through emulating the source language (Nord, 2007:
47). Nord also explicates that from the perspective of text function, when analyzing the
source text, the function(s) of the source text should be ascertained, as well as how these
16
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework
functions can be reached in TT, during which process the means of instrumental
translation or documentary translation should be applied (Nord, 2007: 92).
3.2.1 Documentary Translation
Specifically speaking, documentary translation works as a document of source
culture, so that receivers could sense what they are reading belongs to another culture.
Since in this way, the TT reserves the original linguistic and cultural features to
popularize the source culture. For more specific information, the Table 3-1 below can be
supportive.
Table 3-1 Documentary Translation
Function Document of source-culture communicative interaction for target-culture
readership
Forms Interlineal Literal Philological Exoticizing
translation translation translation translation
Goals Reproduction of SL Reproduction of Reproduction of Reproduction of
system SL form ST form + content ST form, content
+ situation
This table provides a thorough demonstration of documentary translation,
including its function, forms, and goals. The following part explains the four forms in
detail.
As Nord (2007: 47) denotes that when the documentary translation focuses on
morphological, lexical or syntactic features of the source text, interlinear translation, or
word-for-word translation can be used. The purpose of interlinear translation is to
express the structure of the source text. In this translation, the word order follows the
source text.
The second form, literal translation means that the translation process intends to
reproduce the words of the initial text by applying conversational exercises of certain
vocabulary to the target language (Nord, 2007: 47). This kind of translation form is
more likely to be seen in political speeches or newspaper articles. From the translator's
point of view, this translation retains the primary language features at the lexical level,
stressing value promotion.
The third one, philological translation describes the addition of necessary
17
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
explanation to the source culture or peculiarities. It is to make the translated text more
easily understood (Nord, 2007: 49). The explanation could be added in footnotes or
glossaries, determined by the translator. Likewise, if there are not so many additions, the
translator can put them as in-text notes.
The last form is exoticizing translation. This form is mainly to leave the source
story unchanged by creating the atmosphere of exotic strangeness or cultural distance. It
is often used in the translation of stories. In this manner, when readers are reading a
foreign story, he or she can detect the difference obviously, which creates novelty.
3.2.2 Instrumental Translation
Instrumental translation revolves around the audience (receiver), which tries to
achieve the same performance in target text as that of source language in source text. As
explained above, instrumental translation aims to provide a new communication
environment for the source writers and target readers. It has three forms as demonstrated
in the following Table 3-2.
Table 3-2 Instrumental Translation
Function Instrument for target-culture communicative interaction modelled according to
source-culture communicative interaction
Forms Equifunctional Heterofunctional Homologous
translation translation translation
Goals Realization of ST Realization of similar Realization of
functions for target functions as ST homologous effect to
audience ST
Equifunctional translation is mostly used in technical texts translation and
pragmatical texts like guidelines, instructions for cooking, product specifications and so
on (Nord, 2007: 49). With equifunctional translation, the fact that the text has been
translated will not be observed by target readers. Instead, they will regard it as an
originally written one. To achieve this function, the translator can use various translation
methods for the translation purposes.
Heterofuntional translation is used when the function of the original text cannot be
fully transferred by equifunctional translation. Sometimes it can be achieved through
certain translation methods like conversion, while at some points it can only be omitted
18
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework
for cultural distance. Therefore, the translator should be familiar with the stylistic and
cultural features of both ST and TT.
Homologous translation focuses on the degree of source text originality. The same
or a homologous degree of originality as the original text can be presented concerning
the respective cultural corpora of texts.
According to the thorough explanation of Nord in her book Translation as A
Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained, it is explicit that Nord
clarifies these two different translation types based on the role of the source text. On the
one hand, documentary translation stresses the form, words and phrases, and some
sentence patterns of the source text. Ping Hong (2002: 20) also explains that the
documentary translation focuses on the reappearance of source text communication. On
the other hand, instrumental translation highlights the readability and comprehension of
the translated text for target readers.
To sum up, it is no doubt that documentary translation focuses on reproducing the
context when the source readers receive the original text. On the contrary, the
instrumental translation stresses creating another context, in which the way target
readers receive the translated text is the same as that of the source text for the source
readers.
3.3 Guidance of This Theory to This Project
It was presented in Chapter Two that this source text is an academic journal paper
in economics with various specific features such as the usage of metaphors and certain
sentence patterns. When addressing different features, different translation methods
should be applied. The functional translation theory can guide the translation of
practical texts on account of the demand for economic growth in many aspects (Chen,
1996: 9). Although it was presented just after the reform and opening-up, it still applies
today since the world now is also faced with fast economic transformation. Since there
is a supreme purpose of this translation project, that is to make sure those English
readers can thoroughly understand this economic journal paper while maintaining its
professionalism as an economic academic article.
Besides, Nord's documentary translation and instrumental translation target
different texts respectively, which has been mentioned in the above sections. Therefore,
this report can be translated under the guidance of Nord's functional translation theory.
19
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Tian and Yu e (2010: 111) list the application of these two translation types on the
translation of Chinese specific expressions respectively. For example, “一国两制”,
translated as "One Country, Two Systems", can be used to help understand the
interlineal translation among the four forms of documentary translation, which is also
the common translated version. Besides, Liu Junping (2009: 388) also claims that
documentary translation can lead the translation of texts and news in politics and
academic essays. More examples like this can be noticed in this project, like “双边市
场特性” as "two-sided market characteristics". What's more, homologous translation
tries to exert the same effect as the source text, although the translated texts may not be
technically corresponding to its source version. For instance, “供需匹配” can be
translated as "demand matching", instead of "supply and demand matching". For one
thing, as commonly used in economics, demand matching to some extent can be used as
the same meaning of supply and demand matching, just in a briefer form. For another
thing, it works the same in the translated text under the application of Nord's
homologous translation method of instrumental translation.
 To make it clear in what aspects can these two translation types be used as general
guidance, this part introduces an overall lead-in. Nord's functional translation theory
proposes documentary translation and instrumental translation to respond to different
translation challenges for translators.
 Firstly, documentary translation can be applied to guide the translation of economic
terms. It is known that the professional terms should be translated accurately and strictly
to fully and correctly convey the original meanings. The literal translation can propel
the translation of terms that are especially used in economics. Thus, both Chinese and
English readers can fully understand them. Under this condition, the translated terms
keep the original word sequences and part of speech. As for terms that are too
specialized to understand for ordinary readers, philological translation can avail. It
means that explanatory information can be added for professional terms. In this way,
ordinary readers can understand those terms without difficulties and unnecessary
checking.
 Secondly, instrumental translation can guide the translation of sentence patterns
and less cohesive content. The source text, as a journal paper in economics, boasts
features both linguistically and stylistically. As mentioned in Chapter Two, some part of
the ST lacks cohesion and generalizing content. Therefore, instrumental translation
20
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework
allows the translator to create an instrument, through which the communication between
target readers and the translated text becomes more easily. The instrument can be the
alteration of sentence structures and the omission of redundant information, and it also
allows the translator to add proper linking content for less cohesive content. It signifies
that the translation of sentence patterns and less cohesion can be completed under the
guidance of instrumental translation. Therefore, here the instrumental translation
provides a great instrument for the translator to operate.
Thirdly, the translation of economic metaphors can be completed under the
combination of documentary translation and instrumental translation. To keep both the
image and the meaning of the economic metaphors, documentary translation is of great
service. Since it directs the translator to follow the original linguistic sequence. And in
terms of metaphors that are not commonly seen in English, instrumental translation is
useful. As it helps the translator to conduct the syntactic and formal adjustment to the
ST, so that the translated metaphors fully represent the content while its image is
abandoned.
 To draw a conclusion, Nord's functional translation theory is significant to guide
the translation of economic journal papers. In terms of the source text's features
respectively, where words and sentences with fixed reasons are concerned, or only in
specific forms can it be fully explained to readers, the documentary translation is to be
applied. On the contrary, if the source text should be rendered in a certain way, like
cutting the redundant part, the instrumental translation can be used as the overall
guidance to achieve the original function. Therefore, Nord's documentary and
instrumental translation are of strong guidance for the translation of this Chinese to
English translation of this journal article in economics. Like what Liu Junping (2009:
389) says that instrumental translation does not require the absolutely functional
equivalence between the source text and the target text, as long as they can achieve the
same effect.
 This chapter sums up the core thoughts of functional translation theory proposed
by Nord, together with the explanation of its relevance to this translation project. After
that, to better explain how this translation project applies Nord's functional translation
theory, Chapter Four stretches a detailed response.
21
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Chapter Four Case Study
As mentioned in Chapter Two (Source Text Analysis), this source text, as an
economic journal paper, features in various aspects like professional terms, fixed
sentence patterns and so on. Besides, the documentary translation and instrumental
translation of Christiane Nord are applied to guide the translation project. Thus,
combining these two aspects, Chapter Four is divided into four major sections. Section
one is mainly about the translation of terms under the guidance of documentary
translation, and section two combines these two translation types, guiding the
translation of economic metaphors. Then sections three and four are deliberated under
the guidance of instrumental translation to achieve the same textual function as the
source text.
4.1 Translation of Economic Terms
The translation of professional terms should be accurate and transparent. Nord
(2007: 47) introduces documentary translation and instrumental translation in her book
Translation as a Purposeful Activity as two major translation types, or strategies, which
occupy four and three forms of specific translation methods respectively.
This section contains two parts, covering literal translation and philological
translation, two of the major forms of documentary translation presented by Christiane
Nord. The two translation forms propel the translation of economic terms in two
manners. These two subsections strictly follow the rules with the best efforts to ensure
that the ST economic terms are kept with their original characteristics while the brief
writing style of the ST is also maintained. Thus, the needs of both professional readers
and ordinary readers are satisfied.
4.1.1 Literal Translation of Economic Terms
Literal translation here is one of the four forms of documentary translation which is
first introduced by Nord (2007: 48) as explained in Chapter Three. She defines it as a
reproduction of source text form and focuses it mainly on lexical units of the source text.
Besides, it also assists target readers to comprehend source language structures (Ping,
2002: 21). In this subsection, terms extracted from the source paper are translated under
22
Chapter Four Case Study
the guidance of this "literal translation", which is explicated in the following part by
adopting nominalized structures.
It is necessary to clarify exactly what is meant by adopting nominalized structures.
Lian Shuneng (2004: 105) once explains that using nominal phrases makes the sentence
more concise, vivid, and effective in the explanation of complicated concepts. In
academic writings, nominalization enlarges the lexical intensity to shorten sentences.
Also, as the lexical intensity enhances, the more objective the text will be (Wang, 2017:
80). Therefore, the literal translation leads the application of nominalized structures,
which intensifies the logicality and conciseness of ST terms. Some examples extracted
from this text are organized as the following Table 4-1.
Table 4-1 Terms Extracted from the ST and TT
Terms from ST Translated Terms in TT
平台成长 platform growth
平台架构 platform architecture
平台开放度 platform openness
网络效应 Internet effect
非对称因果关系 asymmetric causality
用户感知价值 user perceived value
精准推送 targeted feeding
双边市场特性 two-sided market characteristics
Some examples mentioned in this table typify a type of "noun plus noun" phrase.
The reason is that in Chinese, verbs can be used as nouns frequently. For example, “平
台成长” and “平台架构” adopt nominalized structures to express its original meaning
in a same brief way.
Examples like “双边市场特性” can actually be translated as both "bilateral
market characteristics" and "two-sided market characteristics". To explain it in detail,
according to the definition of literal translation presented by Nord, the target text
attempts to keep the original form with "two" corresponding to "双" and "sided" to
“边”. And it is the same reason for “用户感知价值”. As Table 4-1 above presents
that the target translation is corresponding to the original text word for word: “用户”
-user, “感知”-perceived and “价值”-value. These two examples are translated by
strictly following the rules of literal translation of Christiane Nord, with every original
23
Master Thesis of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
word been translated.
It can be explained the same for examples like “精准推送”, “平台架构” and
so on. “精准推送” is translated as "targeted feeding" under the influence of the
context that the platform provides information for targeted users specifically so that
every user could find something they like, instead of something irrelevant. Together
with the principle of "keeping the word sequence" mentioned by Nord, with “精准”
and “推送” are consistent with "targeted" and "feeding" respectively.
Totally, there are two major reasons for that. First, under the adoption of the literal
translation method proposed by Nord, it is feasible and proper to translate economic
terms as mentioned above, testifying this translation report's theoretical guiding rules.
Since these terms are critical to accurately comprehend this journal paper, meaning the
translation cannot be diverted from the source text. Second, these translated versions
still correctly and precisely convey the original meaning of the source text, complying
with the characteristics of economic journal papers. In total, this way of presentation
can not only represent the original meaning, but also reproduce it in a more concise and
direct way, assisting target readers to grasp economic concepts.
4.1.2 Philological Translation of Economic Terms
Christiane Nord's philological translation in documentary translation stresses the
ST structure and content while allowing the translator to add notes. Besides, as
mentioned in Chapter One, the target readers may be professionals excelling in
economics, and ordinary readers who are just interested in economics. This section is to
satisfy both of their reading needs. Tian and Yue (2010: 112) clarify the application of
philological translation as that when transliteration and literal translation are not enough
to reproduce the form of ST, necessary explanations should be added. It makes clear that
if the translated text needs to add explanations or footnotes to further support the target
readers to receive the original meaning of the ST, the translation form of philological
translation should be applied. However, considering the conciseness of the academic
papers, and because this academic paper in economics has already used some footnotes
to deliver its own meanings, this translated text conducts a little adaptation to the usage
of philological translation. That is to change the after-text glossary or footnotes into
interlinear notes after discussions with ST authors, which is a way to satisfy the
requirements of both convenience and directness.