论文范文:高考英语试卷的跨文化能力体现研究 ——以 2015-2019 年全国高考英

来源: 未知 作者:paper 发布时间: 2022-07-09 10:04
论文地区:中国 论文语言:中文 论文类型:英语论文
随着全球化的快速发展,越来越多的岗位对人才的跨文化能力提出了明确的要 求。我国的改革开放也在不断深入,中外交流变得越来越密切,跨文化能力成为新 型人才的一个衡量标准
随着全球化的快速发展,越来越多的岗位对人才的跨文化能力提出了明确的要
求。我国的改革开放也在不断深入,中外交流变得越来越密切,跨文化能力成为新
型人才的一个衡量标准。教育寄托了一个国家的希望,我国教育部颁布的 2003 年
版《普通高中英语课程标准》和 2017 年版《普通高中英语课程标准》都明确要求
高中生要具备跨文化能力并且对跨文化能力进行了详细的阐述。关于跨文化能力这
方面的绝大多数研究,都集中在对学生和老师进行调查问卷和访谈,调查的结果已
经非常明确,即英语教师和学生的跨文化能力总体现状令人担忧, 主要表现为他们
在跨文化知识、技能、意识和态度这 4 个维度上发展不平衡(涂薇,2019)。这就
导致很多中国学生考试能考高分,但无法用英语与外国人正常交流。面对如此现状,
笔者试图从语言测试的角度找原因。跨文化能力是语言教学的组成部分,所以对语
言教学的测试必须要包含对跨文化能力的测试。高考作为我国重要的语言测试之一,
其产生的反拨作用对教学能产生极大的影响(侯云星, 2019)。在很大程度上,高考考
试内容决定了教师教什么、学生学什么以及教师和学生对待跨文化能力培养的态度。
因此研究高考英语试卷是否体现跨文化能力以及如何体现显得尤为重要。
本研究主要采用了文献研究法、文本分析法和统计分析法,基于“跨文化能力
测试”理论和“英语测试与文化”等理论,主要探讨了 2015-2019 年全国高考英语
卷的跨文化能力体现现状并提出相关建议。具体研究以下问题:
1. 2003 年版《普通高中英语课程标准》和 2017 年版《普通高中英语课程标准》
对跨文化能力的要求如何,以及两者要求有何差异性?
2. 高考英语全国卷的跨文化能力体现总体状况如何?
3. 高考英语全国卷的跨文化能力体现的内容类型如何分布?
4. 高考英语全国卷的跨文化能力体现的具体内容是什么?
调查结果显示:
1. 通过对比两版英语课程标准,笔者发现相较于 2003 年版《普通高中英语课
程标准》, 2017 年版《普通高中英语课程标准》在课程目标、学科核心素养、“人
与社会”语境、以及“语言知识”要素和“文化知识”要素等地方多次提到跨文化
能力的培养,并对文化教学的要求更为细致。
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2. 2015-2019 年的全国高考英语卷中,体现跨文化能力的文本共有50 篇,占总
文本数的18.80%,说明全国高考英语卷中涉及跨文化能力的文本数量偏低。
3. 三种类型的文本材料(听力型文本材料、英语阅读型文本材料、中文阅读型
文本材料)均反映了跨文化能力,跨文化能力在这三种类型的文本材料中体现的比
例差别较大。跨文化能力在听力文本材料中体现比例最低,只占总听力文本的2.14%;
汉语类阅读文本材料体现跨文化能力的文本材料比例最高,占汉语类阅读文本材料
总数的92.86%;英语类阅读文本材料体现跨文化能力的文本比例适中,占英语类阅
读文本材料总数的30.36%。
4. 英语阅读型文本材料包含阅读理解、完形填空、语法以及短文改错四类题型。
在这四类题型中,语法题文本材料体现跨文化能力的比例最高,其比例为50%。其
次是阅读理解,有41.67%的阅读理解文本材料体现了跨文化能力。完形填空文本材
料体现跨文化能力的比例为14.29%。短文改错文本材料均未体现跨文化能力。
5. 2015-2019 年的14 套高考英语全国卷试题对学生跨文化能力考察不均衡,其
主要考察学生的跨文化能力中的文化技能和文化知识,对文化情感没有考察。跨文
化能力体现中的文化知识体现表现为:文化知识内容占比小,文化知识的类型单一,
其中涵盖文化知识类型最多的是2019 年Ⅱ卷和2019 年III 卷,涵盖了了4 种文化
内容类型。所调查的 14 套试卷涉及了 7 类文化知识,其中 3 类文化知识的出现频
率最高,分别是:建筑与交通、文学与艺术、生活方式。关于文化技能的考察,全
部集中在中文阅读文本中,即通过英语写作来考察学生的文化技能。
结合以上的研究发现,笔者对如何改进高考英语全国卷的跨文化能力体现以及
跨文化能力教学提出了相应的建议,旨在提高学生和教师的跨文化能力。
关键词:跨文化能力;全国高考英语卷;高中英语课程标准;测试
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Abstract
With the rapid development of globalization, more and more employers put forward
clear requirements for the intercultural competence of talents. With the intensification of
reform and opening up in China, the communication between China and foreign
countries has become more and more essential, and intercultural competence has become
a measure of new talents. Education is the hope of a country. The 2003 edition of English
Curriculum Standard for senior high school and 2017 edition of English Curriculum
Standard for senior high school issued by the Chinese Ministry of Education clearly
require senior high school students to have intercultural competence. Most of the
researches on intercultural competence are focused on the questionnaire and interview
with students and teachers. These results of the researches are very clear. That is to say,
the overall situation of intercultural competence of English teachers and students is
alarming, which is reflected in their unbalanced development in the four dimensions:
intercultural knowledge, skills, awareness and attitude(Tu Wei,2019). As a result, many
Chinese students can get high scores in exams, but little of them can communicate with
foreigners in English fluently. In the face of such a situation, the author tries to find out
the reasons from the perspective of language testing. As an integral part of English
teaching, English testing should also reflect intercultural competence. As an important
language test in China, the washback effects of college entrance examination on teaching
can not be underestimated (Hou Yunxing, 2019). To a large extent, the teacher teaches
what the college entrance examination tests and the student learns what the college
entrance examination tests. Therefore, it is very important to study the condition situation
of intercultural competence representation in the college entrance examination English
papers.
The text-based research of this paper adopts the methods of literature research, text
analysis and statistical analysis, and takes the related theories of "intercultural
competence test" and "English test and culture" as the theoretical basis of the research. It
mainly discusses the present situation of intercultural competence representation in the
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national college entrance examination English papers. The following questions are
specifically studied:
1. What are the specific requirements of the English Curriculum Standard on
intercultural competence, and the differences between the 2003 edition English
Curriculum Standard of senior high school and the 2017 edition English Curriculum
Standard of senior high school on intercultural competence?
2. What is the overall situation of the intercultural competence representation in the
national college entrance examination English papers?
3. What are the distribution and the content types of intercultural competence in the
national college entrance examination English papers?
4. What is the specific content of intercultural competence in the national college
entrance examination English papers?
The results show that:
1. By comparing the two versions of English Curriculum Standard , the author finds
that compared with the 2003 edition English Curriculum Standard for senior high school,
the 2017 edition English Curriculum Standard for senior high school improves the
cultivation of intercultural competence in the aspects of curriculum objectives, core
quality of subjects, context of "people and society", as well as elements of "language
knowledge" and "cultural knowledge", and requires more detailed cultural teaching.
2. In the national college entrance examination English papers from the year 2015 to
2019, there are 50 texts representing intercultural competence, accounting for 18.80% of
the total texts. It shows that the number of intercultural competence related texts in the
national college entrance examination is small.
3. The three types of text materials (Listening Type、English Reading Type、
Chinese Reading Type)all reflect intercultural competence, but the proportion of
intercultural competence texts in different types of texts materials is quite different.
Among them, the proportion of intercultural competence in listening texts is low,
accounting for only 2.14% of the total listening texts. The proportion of intercultural
competence in Chinese reading texts is the highest, accounting for 92.86% of the total
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Chinese reading texts. The proportion of intercultural competence in English reading
texts is moderate, accounting for 30.36% of the total English reading texts.
4. English reading type materials include reading comprehension, cloze, grammar
and essay correction. Among the four types of questions, the proportion of grammar text
materials reflecting intercultural competence is the highest, which is 50%. The second is
reading comprehension. 41.67% of reading comprehension text materials reflects
intercultural competence. The percentage of cloze text materials reflecting intercultural
competence is 14.29%. The intercultural competence is not reflected in the essay
correction text materials.
5. In the 14 sets of national college entrance examination English papers from the
year 2015 to 2019, the testing of students' intercultural competence is not balanced, and
these tests mainly focus on the cultural knowledge and skills in intercultural competence.
The proportion of cultural knowledge content is small, and the type of cultural
knowledge is single, with the most cultural knowledge covered in 2019II and 2019III,
involving four types of cultural contents. The 14 sets of papers involve seven types of
cultural knowledge, among which types of cultural knowledge have the highest
frequency, namely: architecture and traffic, literature and art, lifestyles. The testing of
cultural skills is all concentrated in Chinese reading texts, that is, through English writing
to test students’ cultural skills.
Based on the above findings, the author puts forward some suggestions on how to
improve the intercultural competence representation in the national college entrance
examination English papers and intercultural competence teaching, aiming to improve
the intercultural competence of students and teachers.
Key words: intercultural competence;national college entrance examination English
papers;senior high school English Curriculum Standard ; test
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Contents
摘 要................................................................................................................................... I
Abstract ........................................................................................................................... III
List of Tables...................................................................................................................... IX
Chapter 1 Introduction.......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Research Background..................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Research Significance .................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Research Methods .......................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Thesis Framework .......................................................................................................... 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review ................................................................................................ 9
2.1 Concept Definition .................................................................................................. 9
2.1.1 Culture........................................................................................................... 9
2.1.2 Intercultural Competence ............................................................................ 10
2.1.3 Test .............................................................................................................. 12
2.2 Research Status Quo of Intercultural Competence Test........................................ 15
2.2.1 Current Research Status Quo Abroad.......................................................... 15
2.2.2 Domestic Research Status Quo ................................................................... 17
2.2.3 Review of Existing Studies ......................................................................... 20
2.3 English Test and Culture Representation .............................................................. 20
2.3.1 Test Itself and Culture ................................................................................. 21
2.3.2 Test Questions and Culture ......................................................................... 21
2.3.3 Test Text and Culture.................................................................................. 21
2.4 Intercultural Competence Test Models ................................................................. 22
Chapter 3 Interpretation of Senior High School English Curriculum Standard ................ 26
3.1 A Hierarchical Description of the Requirements of 2003 Edition Senior High
School English Curriculum Standard for Students' Intercultural Competence .......... 26
3.2 Interpretation of the Requirements of 2017 Edition English Curriculum Standard
for Senior High School Students' Intercultural Competence....................................... 28
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3.3 The Comparison Between the Two Editions English Curriculum Standard for
Senior High School Students' Intercultural Competence. ........................................... 30
Chapter 4 Research Design and Implementation ............................................................... 33
4.1 Research Object..................................................................................................... 33
4.2 Research Questions ............................................................................................... 33
4.3 Research Framework............................................................................................. 34
4.4 Research Process ................................................................................................... 35
4.4.1 Data Collection............................................................................................ 35
4.4.2 Data Processing ........................................................................................... 35
Chapter 5 Research Results and Analysis .......................................................................... 38
5.1 General Information of the College Entrance examination English Paper ........... 38
5.2 The Overall Situation of the Intercultural Competence Representation in the
National College Entrance Examination English Papers ............................................ 39
5.3 The Types of Intercultural Competence Contents in the National College
Entrance Examination English Papers......................................................................... 43
5.4 The Analysis of Reading Type(English) Texts in the National College Entrance
Examination English Papers........................................................................................ 47
5.4.1 Intercultural Competence Representation in Reading Comprehension....... 47
5.4.2 Intercultural Competence Representation in Cloze..................................... 52
5.4.3 Intercultural Competence Representation in Grammar............................... 52
5.4.4 Intercultural Competence Representation in Essay Correction................... 54
5.5 The Analysis of Reading Type(Chinese) Texts in the National College Entrance
Examination English Papers........................................................................................ 54
Chapter 6 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 58
6.1 Research Findings ................................................................................................. 58
6.2 Suggestions on the Reflection of Intercultural Competence Representation in the
National College Entrance Examination English Papers ............................................ 59
6.2.1 Suggestions for the Intercultural Competence Test of College Entrance
Examination English Papers................................................................................. 59
V
6.2.2Suggestions for Intercultural Competence Teaching ................................... 62
6.3 Research Insufficiency and Research Prospects.................................................... 64
Bibliography....................................................................................................................... 66
Appendix ............................................................................................................................ 70
AppendixⅠ.................................................................................................................... 70
AppendixⅡ................................................................................................................... 72
Acknowledgement.............................................................................................................. 74
作者简介............................................................................................................................ 76
V
List of Tables
Table 2-1 Intercultural Competence Test Models ........................................21
Table 3-1 Objectives and Requirements of Intercultural Competence ........25
Table 3-2 Specific Contents of Intercultural Competence Requirements for
Senior High School Students..........................................26
Table 3-3 Comparison of the Objectives and Requirements of the Two
Editions of Curriculum Standards............................................................30
Table 4-1 Framework of Analysis of Intercultural Competence
Representation in College Entrance Examination....................................33
Table 4-2 Corresponding Relationship between Question Types and Text
Materials...................................................................................................35
Table 4-3 Overall Situation of Intercultural Competence Representation in
Text Materials.......................................................................................35
Table 4-4 Specific Contents of Intercultural Competence Representation
..................................................................................................................36
Table5-1The Overall Situation of Intercultural Competence Representation
in National College Entrance Examination Papers..........38
Table 5-2 Proportion of Intercultural Competence Related Texts in College
Entrance Examination Papers Over the Years.............................39
Table 5-3 Types and Contents of Intercultural Competence in Text Materials
of College Entrance Examination Paper...................................42
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Table 5-4 Number of Types of Cultural Knowledge in Text Materials of
College Entrance Examination Paper.......................................................43
Table 5-5 Reading comprehension texts related to cultural knowledge...46
Table5-6 Amount of Cultural Knowledge Types in Reading
Comprehension.............................................................................................50
Table 5-7 Cloze Texts Related to Cultural Knowledge............................51
Table 5-8 Grammar Texts Related to Cultural Knowledge......................51
Table 5-9 Cultural Knowledge Representation in English Reading Types
Texts..........................................................................................................53
Table 5-10 Writing Requirements of Reading Type(Chinese) in College
Entrance Examination Papers...................................................................54
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Chapter 1 Introduction
In this chapter, the author mainly introduces the research background, research
significance, research questions and methods of this study. The overall structure of this
thesis is also included in this chapter.
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1.1 Research Background
In the past few decades, due to the progress of science and technology, information
technology is changing with each passing day. Every citizen of "global village" has been
involved in the wave of economic globalization, and the politics, economy and culture of
the whole world have been widely linked. The increase of communication between
different countries and regions has also brought a series of problems caused by cultural
differences. Cultural misunderstanding, contradictions and even conflicts have brought
obstacles to people's communication. Behind these superficial contradictions and conflicts,
the deep obstacles come from the differences of culture and values. The improvement of
intercultural awareness and intercultural competence is particularly important. Foreign
language learning is an important way for students to contact the national culture of other
countries. The learning of a language should also be the learning process of culture (Zhu
Jianqiu, 2015). The cultivation of high school students' intercultural competence is one of
the indispensable abilities in foreign language application. The 2017 edition of English
Curriculum Standard for senior high school proposes to pay special attention to the
cultivation of students' ability to use language comprehensively, to improve students'
ability to think and deliver in English and to form intercultural awareness and basic
intercultural competence (Gu Ming, 2018). This highlights the importance of culture in
English classroom teaching. How to achieve this goal under the existing English teaching
conditions and English learning environment has become the focus of high school English
teachers' research. Teachers should combine teaching materials to teach students language
knowledge, but also to transfer cultural knowledge to students, improve students'
competence to communicate in English.
The theory of intercultural communicative competence tends to be mature(Sun
Yongchun, 2019). The cultivation of intercultural competence has attracted more and more
attention of scholars and front-line teachers. There are many theoretical works on
intercultural communication, such as Jia Yuxin's Intercultural Communication (Jia Yuxin,
1997), Chen Shen's Cultural Teaching in Foreign Language Teaching (Chen Shen, 1999),
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Gu Jiazu's Intercultural Communication Hidden Culture in Foreign Language and
Literature (Gu Jiazu, 2002). For example, Professor Jia Yuxin puts forward the research
mode of intercultural competence from the research direction, method, content and scope,
while Professor Chen Shen discusses how to combine language teaching and cultural
teaching. With the deepening of the research, more and more experts and scholars find that
even if they have good language knowledge and no culture introduction, there will be a
series of problems in the practical application, and the research of intercultural competence
just solves this problem. So scholars and teachers began to pay attention to how to cultivate
students' intercultural competence in teaching. The traditional teaching method, which
used grammar knowledge as the key point of teaching, was replaced by a new model. They
began to try to introduce culture into students' knowledge system, and cultivate students'
intercultural awareness and competence, especially in the cultivation of high school
students' intercultural competence conduct a lot of investigation and empirical research.
At present, most high school English teachers still use the traditional grammar and
translation teaching in English teaching, but ignore the culture teaching. College entrance
examination still seriously affects teachers' teaching ideas. In order to improve students'
examination performance, teachers spend a lot of time teaching vocabulary and grammar
knowledge in the classroom. In this way, although students improve their language
knowledge, their communication competence and intercultural awareness have not been
strengthened. At the same time, most high school students study English just to pass the
exam. They don't have a strong desire to communicate with English speakers, so they have
no interest in English cultural background knowledge. Generally speaking, most students
lack of intercultural awareness and intercultural competence. The current situation of
cultivating intercultural awareness in middle school is far from satisfactory. In this case,
the cultivation of intercultural awareness can not achieve the desired effect. The so-called
intercultural awareness refers to the participants' sensitivity to cultural factors in
intercultural communication. In modern society, intercultural competence has become an
indispensable part of people's life. However, the biggest obstacle in intercultural
competence is cultural difference, and the whole world is considering how to eliminate it.
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As an integral part of teaching, testing should also reflect intercultural
communication. In addition, the test has a backwash effect on teaching. As one of the
largest tests in China, the backwash produced by the college entrance examination can
have a great impact on teaching(Hou Yunxing, 2019). Therefore, it is particularly
important to study whether the text materials of the college entrance examination reflect
intercultural communication in English teaching.Although the study of college entrance
examination English test and culture has gradually attracted the attention of the academic
community, the total number of literature on this topic is small, the analysis of culture is
not in-depth, and there is no clear distinction and explanation of the category and content
of culture(Hou Yunxin,2019).
The research on language testing and text has developed earlier in foreign countries,
but the amount is insufficient. Since 2004, some researchers in China began to study the
text materials of language test, including CET-4 and CET-6, TEM-4 and TEM-8 for
English majors, and English examination papers for postgraduates. The research objects of
the existing literature can be roughly divided into the following four kinds : reading text,
listening text, translation text, and English test materials.
Although the literature has been studied from different aspects, the research mainly
focuses on the difficulty, readability, authenticity and characteristics of the text. However,
there are only three articles (Hou Yunxin, 2019; Xiong Weiwei, 2019; Zhou Xiaoxue,
2019) about whether the text materials reflect the culture or not. Therefore, it is of
far-reaching significance to analyze the text of college entrance examination papers for the
investigation of intercultural competence.
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1.2 Research Significance
With the acceleration of China's opening up, China and the Chinese people will
confront the world with a more open face. If we want to understand the world and go to the
world, we must put forward higher requirements for the national foreign language
education. Foreign language education in senior high school is an important process of
cultivating citizens' foreign language ability. The improvement of high school students'
intercultural competence will have a great and far-reaching influence on the development
of Chinese culture and economy in the 21st century. Therefore, the society has put forward
higher and more diversified requirements for the English education of senior high school
graduates, especially for the ability to use language, including the requirements for
entering school, employment and promotion. The demand of college entrance examination
for English ability is constantly increasing. For example, in recent years, the English test
questions of college entrance examination highlight the investigation of students' English
pragmatic ability, pay attention to the test of real language and language use ability, no
matter in listening, single choice, gestalt, reading or writing, the proportion of intercultural
pragmatic content is gradually increasing. For those high school graduates who are facing
employment, many industries also require them to obtain some relevant certificates to
prove their ability to use English.
The English Curriculum Standard for senior high school has been put forward for
more than ten years. One of the questions we have to think about is whether it has played a
necessary guiding role in English teaching. As we all known, the college entrance
examination is still the baton for students to enter the University. Therefore, we must find
out a balance between the English Curriculum Standard and the college entrance
examination. What’s more, we have to explore a series related questions. What is the
status of students' intercultural competence and why? What’s the intercultural competence
requirements of English Curriculum Standard for senior high school? How to improve
students' intercultural competence? Today, when we vigorously advocate the intercultural
communication ability, whether we treat the attitude of the culture of the English speaking
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countries and the culture of our nation correctly? How should we better promote education
of culture. From this perspective, it is worth investigating and studying to cultivate
students' intercultural competence .
From the perspective of academic significance, this is the first time to explore the
intercultural competence through the analysis of national college entrance examination
English papers.Throughout the literature review, the thematic research of intercultural
competence mostly focuses on investigating the current situation of students' and teachers'
intercultural competence and putting forward corresponding improvement suggestions.
Teachers should not only realize the necessity and importance of improving their
intercultural competence, but also renew their foreign language teaching ideas and
improve their intercultural communicative competence. Of course, the government and
schools should take some corresponding measures and help(Tu Wei, 2019). Increasing the
content of intercultural communication in English textbooks and creating the external
environment of intercultural education are essential to cultivate students’ and teachers’
intercultural competence(Gao Xiaoyan, 2010). There are some text analysis studies, but
most of them analyze the complexity, difficulty, text features, readability and authenticity
of the materials. By comparison, the entry point of this study is very unique. By analyzing
the representation of intercultural competence in the national college entrance
examination English papers, combining with the high school English Curriculum
Standard, this paper discusses how to test intercultural competence, and ultimately aims to
improve the intercultural competence of teachers and students.
From the perspective of practical significance, this study can provide some basis for
the reform of college entrance examination papers and some suggestions for the
intercultural competence test. What’s more, the results of this study can also play a guiding
role in teachers' teaching and students' learning.
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1.3 Research Methods
This paper adopts the methods of literature research, text analysis and statistical
analysis.
Literature research method: It provides theoretical basis and support for researchers.
In the research of literature, the author mainly reads the current literature about
intercultural competence, intercultural competence test and some important theories in
order to have a solid theoretical basis and scientific research results. Through reading the
literature, we can understand the advantages and disadvantages of test text analysis, and
then find the innovation of my paper .
Text analysis method: The author analyzes two versions of high school English
Curriculum Standard, and analyzes national college entrance examination English papers
from the year 2015 to 2019.
Statistical analysis method: Through the analysis of the national college entrance
examination English papers from the year 2015 to 2019, the author gets the data from
from different texts. Then, collected data are mainly classified and processed by word
and excel.
1.4 Thesis Framework
The structure of this paper is as follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction. This chapter mainly analyzes the research background and
significance, research methods, and finally gives the framework of this paper.
Chapter 2: Literature review. This chapter first defines the relevant concepts,
including culture, intercultural competence, test and intercultural competence test. Then it
analyzes the relevant research status quo of intercultural competence test at home and
abroad, and comments on the existing research. Finally it expounds the theoretical basis of
English test and culture and intercultural competence test models.
Chapter 3: The interpretation of senior high school English Curriculum Standard.
First of all, it is the interpretation of high school English Curriculum Standard on students'
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intercultural competence, including the interpretation of specific requirements of high
school English Curriculum Standard on students' intercultural competence and the
classifiable description of high school English Curriculum Standard on students'
intercultural competence. Then this paper makes a comparative analysis of the 2003
edition senior high school English Curriculum Standard and the 2017edition senior high
school English new curriculum standard, including the appearance and improvement of
the 2017 senior high school English new curriculum standard, and the comparative
analysis of these two curriculum standards.
Chapter 4: Research Design and Implementation.This chapter mainly introduces the
research object, research questions and research framework involved in the research
design, as well as the research implementation process and methods, including data
collection method and data processing method.
Chapter 5: Research Results and Analysis. This chapter mainly firstly exposes the
overall situation of the intercultural competence representation in the national college
entrance examination English papers. Secondly, it uncovers the distribution and the
content types of intercultural competence in the national college entrance examination
English papers. Lastly, it analyzes the specific content of intercultural competence in the
national college entrance examination English papers.
Chapter 6: Conclusion. This chapter mainly presents the research findings, research
deficiencies and prospects.
8
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Concept Definition
2.1.1 Culture
Culture is a very broad concept, so it is difficult to give it a strict and precise
definition. Since the beginning of the 20th century, many philosophers, sociologists,
anthropologists, historians and linguists have been trying to define the concept of culture
from the perspective of their respective disciplines. So far, however, no accepted and
satisfactory definition has been obtained. According to statistics, there are at least 200
different definitions of "culture". The difference in people's understanding of the word
"culture" is enough to explain the difficulty of defining the concept of "culture".
The word "culture" originated from the Latin verb "colere", which means to
cultivate land, and then extended to cultivate one's interest, spirit and intelligence. The
concept of culture was put forward by British anthropologist Edward Taylor in 1871. He
defined culture as "a complex whole including knowledge, belief, art, law, morality,
custom and the ability and habit acquired as a member of society".
Zhang Xiulin, a contemporary poet and scholar, divides culture into three levels in
his essay On Education, which is expressed as follows: The first level refers to the
high-level culture, which is abstract and invisible, such as social psychology, aesthetics
and value. The second level refers to the concrete one down from the first level.
Although the concrete one can not be seen, it can actually feel the existence of its
structure and activity mode, such as the political power and its institutions. The third
level refers to the superficial culture, which can be seen and felt, goods or matter culture.
In short, it is spiritual culture, materialized culture of spirit and material culture.
Culture is all the spiritual activities and products of human beings relative to
economy and politics. Culture is the sum of all the social phenomena and the internal
spirit of the intelligent group. It includes the history of the intelligent group from the past
to the future. It is all the activities of the group based on the nature, and it is the whole of
9
all the material appearances and spirits of the group. The specific content of human
culture refers to the group's history, geography, local customs, traditional customs, tools,
appurtenances, lifestyle, religious beliefs, literature and art, norms, laws, systems, ways
of thinking, values, aesthetic interests, spiritual totem, etc(Lei Meng, 2014).
According to the traditional concept of human beings, culture is a social
phenomenon, a product created and formed by human beings for a long time. At the same
time, it is also a historical phenomenon, a deposit of human society and history.
Specifically speaking, culture is condensed in the material and free from the material. It
can be inherited from the history, geography, local customs, traditional customs, life style,
literature and art, behavior norms, ways of thinking, values of a country or a nation(Miao
Tian, 2016). It is a generally recognized ideology that can be inherited by human
communication, and it is sublimation of knowledge and experience of the objective
world.
Culture includes material culture, institutional culture and psychological culture.
Material culture refers to the material civilization created by human beings, including
means of transportation, clothing, daily necessities, etc., which is a visible dominant
culture. Institutional culture and psychological culture respectively refer to life system,
family system, social system, thinking mode, religious belief, aesthetic interest, which
belong to invisible recessive culture, including literature, philosophy, politics and other
aspects. The spiritual wealth created by human beings includes religion, belief, custom,
moral sentiment, academic thought, literature and art, science and technology, various
systems, etc. In a broad sense, culture is the sum of material wealth and spiritual wealth
created by human beings in the process of social and historical practice.
The culture mentioned in this paper refers to the culture in a broad sense, that is, the
sum of material wealth and spiritual wealth created by people all over the word in the
process of social and historical practice. Intercultural communication is to fully
understand the overall culture of the world.
2.1.2 Intercultural Competence
In English, there are quite a number of terms referring to "Intercultural
1
Competence". Some of the most widely used and accepted expressions by many
mathematicians are: Intercultural Communicative Competence , intercultural
communication competence and intercultural communicative competence. In addition,
according to Fantini (2006), there are 20 other ways of expressions that often refer to
intercultural competence, which will not be listed here.
This situation shows at least two problems: first, scholars from different countries
have different opinions on intercultural competence. There is still a certain gap in the
understanding of connotation, so different wording is chosen.Second, scholars in
different countries have different research fields, objects and purposes.Different ways are
adopted to express the same or similar concept .
Intercultural competence is generally understood as the ability and quality needed
for successful intercultural communication. Different scholars have different views.
According to Jia Yuxin, intercultural competence includes: communication ability system,
emotion and relationship ability system, plot ability system and communication strategy
ability system (Jia Yuxin, 1992).
Wen Qiufang defines foreign language level as intercultural communicative
competence, and believes that intercultural communicative competence should be
composed of two parts: communicative competence and intercultural competence.
"Among them, communicative competence consists of linguistic competence, pragmatic
competence and strategic competence. Intercultural competence consists of intercultural
sensitivity, inclusiveness and flexibility" (Wen Qiufang, 1999, p16-17).
According to Hu Wenzhong and Gao Yihong, "intercultural competence" belongs to
the "social and cultural ability" in the purpose of foreign language teaching, that is, the
ability to process social and cultural information on the basis of their own knowledge and
skills, so that people can tap their potential to a greater extent (Hu Wenzhong, et al,
1997).
According to Spitzberg, the components of intercultural communication competence
are motivation, knowledge and skills, which are simple but have far-reaching influence
on other scholars (Spitzberg, et al, 1984). The author is more inclined to adopt Hu
1
Wenzhong and Gao Yihong's description of "intercultural communication ability". They
expand and deepen the concept of "intercultural communication ability". From the
perspective of foreign language teaching, people can maximize their potential through
the understanding, evaluation and absorption of mother tongue culture and foreign
culture, so as to grasp the invisible and intangible ability of intercultural communication.
There is a certain correlation between intercultural awareness and intercultural
communication ability, and the level of intercultural awareness will directly affect the
cultivation of intercultural communication ability. Therefore, they are closely linked. In
terms of improving intercultural communication awareness, Hu Wenzhong insists that we
should first understand the barriers to intercultural communication, of course, it is better
to mainly understand the obstacles of students in English teaching.There are
misunderstandings, stereotyped impressions and ethnocentrism. Then we will have
specific training. Of course, these suggestions are very macro, which is of great guiding
significance for the author. Only under the guidance of these background knowledge can
specific improvements be made.
Although the concept of intercultural competence is different. However, most
scholars have formed a relatively consistent view that knowledge, skills and attitudes are
the most important components of intercultural competence. Knowledge mainly refers to
cultural knowledge and intercultural knowledge. Attitude mainly refers to the attitude
towards different cultures, customs, cultural differences and cultural contacts. Skill refers
to the ability to apply emotional ability and cognitive ability to specific practice. In
conclusion, intercultural competence refers the ability to interact with people with
different cultural background, and it is composed of intercultural knowledge,
intercultural skill and intercultural attitude. In this paper, the author equals intercultural
competence to the intercultural communication competence.
2.1.3 Test
The test is a measurement with experimental nature, that is, the combination of
measurement and test (Diao Huimin, 2013). The basic task of testing is to obtain useful
information, through the design of reasonable experimental methods and necessary data
1
analysis and processing, so as to obtain the information related to the tested object. For
example, English proficiency test is used to comprehensively examine the ability of the
subjects to use the language, and to investigate whether they can integrate and use the
language knowledge elements they have mastered. The test is divided into standardized
test and non standardized test. Standardized test refers to the test that adopts objective test
questions, is marked with various measurement indexes such as reliability, validity,
difficulty and discrimination, has established a norm, is tested in a unified environment
and conditions, and is developed or participated in by or under the guidance of professional
institutions or professionals. It mainly includes four parts: (1) the standardization of test
questions; (2) the standardization of test implementation; (3) the standardization of
grading; (4) the standardization of score conversion and interpretation.
Henning (1987) pointed out that the purpose of language testing determines the test
category (Liu Runqing, 2000, p8). Next, according to different classification standards,
briefly describe some categories of language testing.
Classification by function:
According to the purpose of the test, it can be divided into four types: proficiency test,
achievement test, aptitude test and diagnostic test
1. Proficiency test: The proficiency test is used to measure students' language ability,
that is to see whether the candidates reach a certain level, so as to determine whether they
are competent for a certain task.
2. Achievement test: The achievement test examines students' mastery of the
knowledge they have learned. It generally refers to a certain syllabus and even considers
teaching methods.
3. Aptitude test: Different from proficiency test, aptitude test is used to predict the
potential and talent of students to learn a certain language. It's not based on a certain
syllabus, and it doesn't care how many things candidates are learning at the moment. Its
purpose is to discover and identify talented people who are gifted at learning languages, so
as to give full play to their strengths.
4. Diagnostic test: The diagnostic test focuses on the degree of students' learning
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failure. Its purpose is to improve teaching, adjust teaching plans, and provide individual
guidance (Liu Runqing, 2000, p10)
From this perspective, based on senior high school curriculum standard, college
entrance examination belongs to achievement test,which tests students mastery of certain
kind of knowledge.
According to the classification of test methods, it can be divided into separated test
and comprehensive test.
1. Separated test: Separated test breaks down language into small language units and
divides language into four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing, and
then we test one aspect of many kinds of language skills one by one. Finally, we
synthesize the test results to determine a person's overall language ability. Objective test
questions are widely used in the separated test, so the score is objective, the data is easy
to quantify and analyze, and the reliability is high (Shu Yunxiang, 1999, p16).
2.Comprehensive test: The comprehensive test method is just the opposite of the
separated test. Separated test theory believes that human language knowledge and skills
can be decomposed, while comprehensive test consider human language knowledge and
skills as a whole. Separated test only tests one language point in one language skill at a
time, while comprehensive test is to test the multiple aspects of the examinee’s multiple
abilities at the same time. Main forms of comprehensive test conclude cloze and dictation,
which are the most commonly used test methods. In addition, the comprehensive test
includes dictation, oral cloze, paraphrase, answer questions, interview, writing and oral
narration (Shu Yunxiang, 1999, p22).
From this point of view, college entrance examination English paper is a
combination of separated test and comprehensive test, for it not only use multiple choice
to test students' language skills, but also test students' comprehensive language ability,
such as cloze and writing .
The theoretical development of English language testing has gone through
pre-scientific language testing, psychometric structural testing, psycholinguistic
sociolinguistic testing and communicative testing. In the early 1990s, American applied
1
linguist L.f. Bachman further expanded the connotation of communicative competence
on the basis of integrating various theories, and put forward a brand-new communicative
language ability model, which has a wide influence in the British and American testing
circle and is called a milestone in the field of language testing. In his opinion,
communicative language ability is the ability to combine language knowledge with the
scene characteristics of language application to create and interpret meaning. It consists
of three parts: language ability, strategic ability and psychophysiological mechanism.
Bachman also stressed that language and non-verbal abilities involved in
communication should be taken into account in the test. The communicative approach
advocated by this model regards language ability as a dynamic process, pays attention
to the application of language in the specific communication environment and social and
cultural background, pays attention to spoken language in the test, and emphasizes
listening and speaking before reading and writing in the teaching. Moreover, this method
thinks that language behavior is a real-time manifestation, and there are many
possibilities and unpredictability in communication results, so the authenticity and
appropriateness in language test and teaching are more important than the accuracy of
language knowledge.
2.2 Research Status Quo of Intercultural Competence Test
2.2.1 Current Research Status Quo Abroad
The study of intercultural competence first emerged in the United States. Many
scholars regard the silent language published by Edward hall in 1959 as the foundation
work of intercultural communication, and the intercultural competence test is mainly
based on it. The 1970s is an important period of intercultural communicative competence
testing. In the 1970s, the main achievement of the intercultural communicative
competence test in the United States was to discuss the definition of culture,
communication and intercultural communication, and to straighten out the relationship
among them, so as to carry out the intercultural communicative competence test. In the
1980s, intercultural communicative competence testing research was carried out in the
1
United States and around the world. Since the 1990s, the intercultural communicative
competence test research in the United States has shifted from domestic issues to
international issues, strengthening the research on the communication between Americans
and East Asians, especially Chinese. In Europe, especially in Britain, due to historical and
social factors, intercultural communication is more represented as the study of
intercultural pragmatics, which has the rigorous characteristics in the field of linguistics.
Therefore, intercultural communication ability test is closely related to the study of
pragmatics. In recent years, due to the changes of geography, economy and demography in
the world, intercultural research has become more and more important, and intercultural
communicative competence test in Europe and America has made great progress.
Songli (2004) analyzed the intercultural nonverbal communication ability test, and
used the quantitative analysis method to evaluate and compare the intercultural nonverbal
communication ability of the students of Los Angeles University. The results showed that
the language communication ability of the two groups of subjects was better than that of
the non-verbal communication ability. Kramsch (2011) studied the multi-modal
assessment model of intercultural competence, and believed that the construction of the
assessment system of Australian college students' intercultural competence is not only
conducive to the objective assessment of their intercultural competence, but also
conducive to the better cultivation of students' intercultural competence, and the use of
multi-modal theory to construct the multi-modal of intercultural competence. The
evaluation medium of evaluation model framework is computer and network, and the
evaluation content includes knowledge, consciousness, speculation, attitude, skills and
Strategies of intercultural communication.
Samovar (2014) conducted an empirical study on the intercultural awareness and
communication ability of business students at Yale University in the United States. He
deeply understood the current situation of intercultural awareness and communication
ability of business students. Through the investigation, he found that there is still a certain
gap between the awareness and ability of intercultural communication of business students
and future work requirements, including the sensitivity and knowledge of intercultural
1
communication and the application of intercultural communication methods. Ruben (2015)
discussed the problem of intercultural communication ability test and cultural introduction.
He believed that with the development of society, the communication between people from
different cultures must be more and more frequent. Due to the differences in cultural
backgrounds, it will cause pragmatic failures in intercultural communication. In college
English teaching, it is necessary to cultivate students' intercultural communication ability
in time and improve their intercultural communication ability. Michael (2016) discussed
the test of college students' intercultural communication ability. He believed that the
cultivation of college students' intercultural communication ability can help them establish
a world vision, cultivate international awareness, and improve their humanistic quality. He
conducted a one-year intercultural teaching action research in the business class of
Durham University in the UK, and introduced the intercultural communication ability test
method based on the training of students' skills methods: to accurately test the students'
intercultural communicative competence in intercultural teaching activities.
2.2.2 Domestic Research Status Quo
In China, the study of intercultural competence test began in the 1990s. While college
students' intercultural competence has been paid more and more attention, many experts
and scholars have studied it. Since the 1990s, JEFC and SEFC textbooks jointly compiled
by people's education press and Longman Publishing Group Co., Ltd. have been used in
English education in middle schools in China. This textbook shows the importance of
cultivating the cultural awareness of middle school students. It involves in various fields of
national cultural knowledge such as natural science, social science and humanities. It
enables students to accept different cultures of English speaking countries and understand
cultural differences while learning English. Therefore, English culture teaching in middle
school has been paid more and more attention by experts, scholars and English teachers. At
the same time, how to study students' intercultural competence has been widely concerned.
Yue Hao (2016) based on the comparative perspective of English and Chinese,
studied the cultivation of intercultural communication ability of students under the cultural
differences between China and the West. Through the test of relevant indicators, the results
1
showed that there were many problems in the current students' fast cultural communication,
and gave the improvement plan. Jin Guitao and others (2017), from the perspective of "one
belt and one road" initiative, have discussed the current situation and training strategies of
intercultural competence of university students. Universities should take various measures
to cultivate students' intercultural communicative competence, including setting up
elective courses of language and culture along the "one belt and one road", and integrating
intercultural communication knowledge into language teaching. Ren Mei (2017) studied
the cultivation mode of Mongolian Students' English pragmatic competence under
intercultural communication, analyzed the causes of the low English pragmatic
competence of Mongolian students, and put forward targeted suggestions for teaching
improvement. At the same time, he thought that improving the English pragmatic
competence of Mongolian students is a task with a long way to go, which needs
unremitting research and repeated practice to summarize a set of scientific, reasonable and
feasible teaching system of pragmatic competence.
Hua Keqing and Li Ming (2018) took college English teaching as an example to
explore the development of intercultural communication potential, gave a set of test
scheme to test students' intercultural competence, explored how to stimulate students'
intercultural communication potential in the process of college English teaching, so as to
improve students' intercultural competence, and strive to build an English teaching and
learning mode suitable for improving the level of intercultural communication
competence of Chinese college students. Li Shan (2018) studied the cases of intercultural
communication between Han and Uygur college students, and found that there were few
studies on the intercultural communication problems between Han and Uygur, resulting in
the lack of comprehensive and detailed research on intercultural communication, and
many communication problems between Han and Uygur could not be effectively solved,
and collected and sorted out the intercultural communication between Han and Uygur
college students. Based on the analysis of the causes of intercultural communication
conflicts, this paper put forward some suggestions to reduce communication conflicts.
Jiang Yufeng et al. (2018) discussed the evaluation system of college students' English
1
intercultural communicative competence, constructed the evaluation model of college
students' English intercultural communicative competence from the perspective of
language subjectivity, and integrated the evaluation model experience of foreign language
scholars at home and abroad. The model includes two parts: communicative competence
and intercultural competence. Grammatical competence, pragmatic competence ,discourse
competence and strategic ability are four sub abilities, and intercultural ability includes
four levels: skill, knowledge, attitude and cultural difference.
Li Shangchen (2019) discussed the role of ideological and political education in
promoting intercultural communication of college students in the new era. He found that
under the impact of culture, ideological and political education has both theoretical basis
and practical role in guiding intercultural communication of college students in the new
era. It is an effective means to cope with the modern requirements of cultural pressure and
cultural identity, as well as to break the narrow cultural cognition and rational construction
of values. The most important task of ideological and political education is to build a
bridge, to face the overflowing intercultural risks, to establish the correct intercultural
communication ideas and attitudes of college students in the new era, to deal with the
sensitivity of different cultures, and to solve the subjective obstacles of intercultural
communication. Colleges and universities should establish a test plan for college students'
intercultural communication ability, so as to master the actual situation of international
capabilities of college students. Zhao Zhigang (2019) studied the intercultural
communication course construction and the cultivation path of college students'
intercultural communication ability. He believed that under the background of
globalization, the cultivation of college students' intercultural communication
consciousness and ability has become an important task goal of higher education in China.
The construction of college English course plays a key role in the cultivation of
contemporary college students' intercultural communication ability and "global villagers"
consciousness. From the function, necessity, background, key factors and feasibility of
intercultural course construction, this paper points out the problems in the current
intercultural communication course construction, and proposes to strengthen the test of
1
college students' intercultural communication ability, so as to promote the improvement of
college students' intercultural communication ability. Liu Bao (2019) studied the
cultivation path of English teaching and intercultural competence of college students. He
believed that culture is closely related to language, and language itself carries culture.
Through culture in English teaching, students' intercultural awareness and intercultural
competence can be cultivated. He also analyzed and discussed the ways and tests to
improve the intercultural competence of college students. In college English Teaching, in
addition to the acquisition of language skills, teachers should also pay attention to the
cultural differences between China and foreign countries, and put language teaching in a
cultural environment, so as to cultivate comprehensive talents with intercultural
communication ability.
2.2.3 Review of Existing Studies
Generally speaking, the research on the test of students' intercultural competence in
foreign countries started earlier, but different from that in China. The research on the test
of students' intercultural competence in foreign countries pays more attention to social
practice and comparative analysis, and the test indicators are mostly developed around
these two aspects. In our country, the research on the test of college Students' intercultural
communication ability started late, and then in the last decade, there are many related
research literature, forming a wealth of theoretical results. In our country, most of the
research on the test of students' intercultural competence starts from the school, such as
improving the teaching quality, strengthening the teaching curriculum, and so on.
According to the existing research literature, this paper starts from the national college
entrance examination English test paper to test the students' intercultural competence,
which has great innovative significance.
2.3 English Test and Culture Representation
English test and culture representation is discussed mainly from the following three
aspects: test itself and culture, types of test questions and culture, test text and culture .
2
2.3.1 Test Itself and Culture
Language is the carrier of culture. Language reflects and transmits culture. Therefore,
language testing itself contains culture. In view of the importance of intercultural
competence in language acquisition, intercultural testing should also be included in
language testing (Zhou Shen, 2012).
Many scholars think that language is a form of culture. It is impossible to learn
English well without understanding British and American culture. On the other hand, the
more profound and detailed understanding of the history, cultural traditions, customs,
lifestyle and details of life of the country, the more accurate understanding and use of the
language. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the students' cultural knowledge.
2.3.2 Test Questions and Culture
Lessard-Clouston (1992) pointed that cultural test usually includes three aspects:
cultural knowledge, cultural awareness, and cultural skills. Cultural knowledge refers to
the objective cultural facts, which can be tested by traditional questions such as
multiple-choice questions, right or wrong judgment, etc; Cultural skills refer to the
appropriate and effective behaviors in specific intercultural communication. Judgment
questions and short answer questions can be used. Judgment questions include the
appropriate and inappropriate behaviors in the target language culture to let students
judge and give the deep reasons. Short answer questions are used to test how students
understand the etiquette and culture in the target language culture by giving students a
specific context Specific performance.
2.3.3 Test Text and Culture
Intercultural test usually includes cultural knowledge, cultural understanding and
cultural performance(Zou Shen, 2012). There are two ways of intercultural test. One is to
list a part of test questions in a single test paper to examine students' intercultural
communication ability. According to international practice, the proportion of intercultural
test part in the whole test paper is generally 20%(Moore,1994). In addition, the cultural
part of the test questions can be integrated into other parts, such as reading, translation,
listening, writing, etc. It can be seen that cultural test can reflect culture through cultural
2
materials, and can involve cultural materials in listening, gestalt, reading, text filling and
even composition.
2.4 Intercultural Competence Test Models
So far, there is no universally accepted definition of intercultural competence. At
present, the academic community has reached a consensus that intercultural competence
is first and foremost the ability to communicate appropriately and effectively with
individuals or groups of different cultures (Chen Xuefei 2010, p284).Generally speaking,
there are the following defining models of intercultural competence.
Table 2-1 Intercultural Competence Test Models
Model Main ideas
Factor Model From 1970s to 1990s, scholars devoted themselves to finding factors that
contribute to the success of intercultural communication and cooperation.
Scholars from different backgrounds held different opinions on the
elements of the intercultural competence. For example, Ruben pointed out
that elements of intercultural competence are: knowledge, attitude, role,
empathy, respect and interaction (Yan Ming, 2009). In China, Sun
Youzhong(2016) also proposed that intercultural competence should
include respect for world cultural diversity, intercultural empathy and
critical cultural awareness, and master basic intercultural research theories
knowledge and analytical methods.
Structural For the elements of intercultural competence are inexhaustible, arbitrary
Model and repetitive, since the 1990s, scholars have classified these elements
according to their characteristics, forming a structural model of
intercultural competence.
Byram (2014) examined intercultural competence in terms of knowledge,
attitude, skills and critical cultural awareness.
Gersten's cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions of intercultural
2
competence are widely recognized .
The German scholar Bolten (2007)proposed an effective intercultural
competence model which integrates four aspects: individual competence,
social competence, professional competence and strategic competence and
has a great influence in the German community.
Jia Yuxin (1997), a domestic scholar, also put forward the effective
intercultural competence structures: basic communication ability system,
emotion and relationship ability system, plot ability system and
communication strategy system.
According to Chen Guoming (2009), intercultural competence includes
three interdependent levels: cognitive level (intercultural understanding),
emotional level (intercultural sensitivity) and behavioral level
(intercultural effectiveness).
Development According to the development model, the acquisition of intercultural
Model competence can be divided into several successive processes. Bennett's
intercultural sensitivity development model (DMIS) is the most famous
development model, and its development process is divided into six
stages. The first three stages belong to the National Center.The last three
stages belong to the stage of national relativism (Bennett, 1986).
Pan Yaling (2016), a domestic scholar, put forward the multi-level open
dynamic development model of intercultural competence, which regards
the development of intercultural competence as an open three-level
development process: from the thought of ethnocentrism to the thought of
multi-culturalism; from the superficial and single understanding of mother
culture and different cultures to the comprehensive and in-depth
understanding; from unconscious and inappropriate intercultural behavior
to conscious, appropriate and effective intercultural behavior.
2
Interaction The interaction model focuses on the interaction between different factors
Model of intercultural competence. When people from different cultural
backgrounds interpret the same situation according to their own cultural
norms and behavior patterns, it will lead to the deviation of coding,
decoding and interpretation in the process of communication, thus causing
communication obstacles. Therefore, intercultural ability is manifested in
creating an intermediate culture different from the two cultures in the
process of interaction and coordination.
Based on the above theoretical interpretation of intercultural competence, this study
mainly draws on Gersten's structural model of intercultural competence. Gersten believes
that intercultural competence consists of cognitive ability, emotional ability and
behavioral ability(Bolten, 2005). Cognitive ability mainly refers to cultural knowledge
and intercultural knowledge. Emotional ability mainly refers to the attitude towards
different cultures, customs, cultural differences and cultural contacts. Behavioral ability
refers to the ability to apply emotional ability and cognitive ability to specific practice.
In the cognitive dimension, students should understand the general situation of the
target countries. The knowledge of general situation involves geography, history, politics,
economy, philosophy, music and other aspects. Students should understand the way of
thinking and behavior rules of people in other cultures in concrete situations.
In the emotional dimension, open mind and unbiased treatment of other cultures are
regarded as important indicators of intercultural competence. First of all, the open mind
is reflected in the interest in different cultures. Students who are interested in other
cultures and other societies are more likely to integrate into intercultural situations roles,
and they are also more likely to actively and consciously collect the data of the target
country, enrich their knowledge in the cognitive dimension, which is conducive to the
improvement of intercultural ability.
In the behavioral dimension, students should have the ability to successfully
transform cognitive and emotional abilities into specific actions, and have a certain
ability of interpretation and mediation. This is mainly reflected in the flexible use of their
2
own intercultural knowledge in intercultural exchanges to achieve their own purposes of
communication. At the same time, they can be aware of the emerging or existing
intercultural conflicts, and can explain the causes of such conflicts and successfully
resolve them.
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